At the heart of old Nicosia, close to the "green line" separating the Cypriot capital, is Phaneromeni church - one of the oldest and most beautiful churches on the island. Historical sources attribute its creation to 1300 year, to the reign of Cyprus Frankish kings of Lusignan. Once this place was a convent dedicated to Panagia Phaneromeni.
Its inmates were known as skilled seamstress. After all, since ancient times, the island was known for its fine embroidery and production of high quality fabrics and gold thread, which were embroidered with silk clothes. Work brought to the monastery of nuns large income to allocate substantial funds for charitable purposes. One theory links the name of the monastery, as well as the church, built in 1792 year, with the miraculous discovery of the icon of the Virgin. This event occurred during construction. The word "fanerosike" means "was."
Turks who invaded Cyprus in 1571 year, wanted to turn the monastery into a mosque, but there appointed imams (priests) with some fatal sequence suddenly died. Finally, giving up the idea, superstitious Christian invaders left the monastery alone.
The name of the church and opening Phaneromeni due in the first year 1859 on the island of schools for girls. In those years he held the post of Archbishop Makarios I, which strongly contributed to the creation of the school, selecting for this purpose considerable funds from the budget Archdiocese, as well as using charities metropolitan churches and monasteries. Archbishop wrote to living abroad by the Cypriot clergy asking for a donation of money to the needs of all schools in Nicosia. His appeals were heard and soon received substantial sums from a number of monasteries of the Holy Mount Athos, as well as from the Jerusalem Patriarchate Metropolitan Philemon.
In 1872-1873 years. after major construction work takes Phaneromeni church familiar to us appearance. In 1938 year to her parked bell tower, for which specially in England were cast bells.
One of the characteristic features of the temple - its interior decoration and especially thin thread iconostasis, dating 1659 year, reproducing scenes from the Old Testament, as well as a wealth of ancient icons and religious art. Once adorned the iconostasis icon of Panagia Phaneromeni currently stored in the Byzantine Museum of the Archbishop Makarios III Foundation in Nicosia. The temple is a copy created in 1924, the largest Cypriot artist Adamantisom Diamantis. Icon is placed in a silver gilt salary made in 1851 year. Many well-known Cypriot masters worked tirelessly to create today's image of the church. Holy Meal and Archbishop throne - the work of renowned woodcarver A. Papadopoulos. Pulpit made M.Taliodorosom and icons depicting the four evangelists painted by A.Diamantisa. Most of the icons are placed in gold and poserebryannye salaries, skilfully crafted goldsmiths and P.Kolokosom G.Elefteriadisom. The present church decoration - a magnificent mural - a unique work of one of the first Cypriot professional artists Ioannis Kissonergisa, depicting Christ in the temple dome Vsederzhatelya and the four evangelists.
As already mentioned, the icon of the Virgin is in the Byzantine Museum. Over the past ten years under the auspices of the Archbishop of Cyprus bring the original for a few days in the temple for the sacred liturgy in honor of the Virgin. Dimensions icons - 118 83 to see Written in the XIV century, according to experts, it was the most valuable treasure of the monastery of Panagia Phaneromeni. Renowned historian Cypriot Archimandrite Kyprianos wrote: "In Nicosia, there are two miraculous icons: Phaneromeni and Alinetissa. The oldest of them - Phaneromeni "(History of Cyprus, 1788 year). Who studied this issue G.Sotiriu believes that the icon refers to the XII century, and in the XVI-XVIII centuries. it was restored. In the frame, framing the face of the Virgin, preserved images of six hymnographers and requests of citizens for rain, which confirm that the icon was written in the dry season. Unknown icon painter captures Panagia Phaneromeni holding the infant Christ on a gold background. The right hand of the Virgin Mary points to the Lord. Faces of the Virgin Mary and Christ are given a close-up that allows you to better grasp the stern expression on their faces. Similar images relate to the type of icons "Protectress" (decree).
Fortunately, inexorable time and tumultuous events spared icon, saving for researchers adherents unconventional style pattern flow widespread iconography after the capture of Constantinople by the Turks (1453 g).
In the area adjacent to the temple, in 1930 was erected mausoleum where the remains of the Heads of the Orthodox Church of Cyprus and noble laymen executed by the Turks in July 9 1821 year. The tragic events that took place in Cyprus, closely associated with the war in Greece for independence from the Turkish yoke. And long before that, in 1814 year in Russia, where many Greeks, who did not want to put up with the enslavement of their homeland, was created a secret society "Filiki Etheria." Its members launched an extensive preparation for mass protests of the Greek people against the invaders. As a result, 1821 year liberation war began, covering both mainland Greece and the Greek islands.
At the same time, Cyprus was also preparation for insurrection among its organizers were senior representatives of the Cyprus Orthodox Church, headed by the Archbishop. Vicar Sultan Cyprus, knowledgeable about preparations for an uprising and knew the names of the leaders, decided to get ahead of them; all the organizers and active participants were arrested. On his orders, July 9 1821 year was hanged Archbishop Kyprianos, beheaded all three metropolitan and many Orthodox priests and laity. Only in connection with the rebels were executed 470 people. Turks ransacked the monasteries and confiscated the property of those executed. Of those killed were buried in cemeteries and Paleretissy Omologiston Aghion and heads the Church of Cyprus and several eminent citizens (of 17 people) are buried in the church of Panagia Phaneromeni. В 1872-1873 гг. during construction, their remains were placed in a temple in a specially built tomb.
July 9 1930 year anniversary of the uprising, after the Liturgy of the Holy Synod and the church in commemoration of heroes Phaneromeni their remains placed in a sarcophagus, has forever laid to rest in a small burial chamber under the mausoleum. At the mausoleum, built of stone brought from Kyrenia, inscribed with the epitaph, composed by Professor University of Athens S.Minardu.
Lyudmila Papaconstantinou - historian, editor of "The Cyprus Kaleidoscope", published by the Pancyprian Federation of Labour (PEO) in Russian, as well as pages for Russian readers in the newspaper "Vima Ergatiko."