On the pages of the British edition of The Times recently published a ranking of leading education systems in the world. These rankings were compiled on the basis of the International Programme for Student Assessment (PISA), which comprises carrying out tests in order to study the level of literacy of schoolchildren and their ability to apply their knowledge in practice.
During the tests verified the level of education students aged 15 years, testing is conducted every three years. First PISA ranking was compiled in 2000 year, and then the first line it took the education system in Finland. Through 12 years the situation has not changed and still remains in first place Finland. Oddly enough, from second to fifth took the education system such exotic countries like South Korea, Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore.
UK institutions on the PISA test results only 6 took place behind her are the Netherlands, New Zealand, Switzerland and Canada. Neither Russia nor the U.S. could not even enter the top ten ranking.
Try to understand what precedes success of education systems to occupy a leading position in the ranking PISA.
Upon reaching the age of 7-Finnish children compulsorily go to school. The year before they can get pre primary education in kindergarten or at school, but not necessarily.
The first six years of study Finnish students do not get ratings, so they do not have to stay up for hours for homework and exams. At school, children are engaged together, regardless of their existing knowledge. Largely for this reason, between capable and incompetent students the difference is not as noticeable.
Each class Fisk may be no more 16 people. Due to this the teacher can devote more time to a particular student, and the student, in turn, will be busy performing a specific task, and not the teacher asked that he did not understand.
When compared to the United States, where children spend at the basic school at recess average 29 minutes, this time in Finland increased almost twice and reaches 2,5 75 minutes a day. In the chart of the teacher does not cost more 4 hours per day. Time allocated to teachers, which is used exclusively for professional growth, it is about two hours a week.
By the way, the teaching profession in Finland is one of the most respected, and from teachers also require a great deal. For example, each of the Finnish teachers must be a master's degree and to get their first job, the teacher should include at least 10% top graduates on the course.
About prestige of the profession and says the number of applicants for the post of teachers: in 2006 competition per year teacher's place in the main school was 100 people, with the level of earnings of teachers in the national average is about 25 thousand euros per year.
School period for Korean children begins when they reach six years before they can receive primary education in kindergarten, where they can make an already three years old, but not necessarily.
Children aged up to 6 12 years enrolled in primary school, then they go to junior high school, where learning occurs when the child reaches 15 years. As a rule, primary and junior high school children choose, focusing on its proximity to the house. Then, when it is faced with a choice between vocational and academic education in upper secondary school, they can go to another school.
For the content of the school curriculum in the country are the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, which revises it every 10 years. For schools approved by the mandatory minimum academic disciplines, but the school has the discretion to choose and additional items.
In training a child in elementary school with the class of one teacher involved. In the list of subjects for children of this age is necessarily present mathematics, ethics, Korean, basis of social and natural sciences, as well as drawing and music. In addition to this the teacher must be sure in order to convey to students the knowledge that will help children to solve various problems, children are taught the traditions and culture of the country, as they laid the basic principles of life, based on the actual production examples.
In a junior high school, where children move on reaching the age of 12, they face more serious demands. So, the schedule of schoolchildren's activities is calculated for 14 hours per day for 5 days a week, and the total number of teaching hours annually reaches a thousand. In this case, the number of students in one class can increase to 35 people. The transition to the next grade in South Korean schools is based solely on the age of the students, so there are no exams here. Entrance examinations are waiting for schoolchildren only when they reach 15 years, when they will need to enter the schools of senior middle management. Instead of exams, teachers assess the performance of each adolescent in individual subjects, his extracurricular work, attendance, special achievements, as well as moral development. All these data are not used until the moment when the teenager decides on his further education.
In South Korea, the teaching profession is honorable enough that primarily determined by the stability of work, good working conditions and high earnings. For example, the national average salary of a teacher is to 41 thousand euros a year, but due to the incentives that amount could increase to 62 thousand euros. For positions in the teacher candidate must place has a bachelor's degree, as well as enter into 5% top graduates of the university.
The structure of the Hong Kong education system is very similar to the South Korean one. In this country, the future students from three years old can go in a private kindergarten, reaches 6-age child goes to primary school, 12-year - goes to junior high school, where he learns to 15 years, and then spends another year 2 in upper secondary school.
Unlike South Korea, Hong Kong students in 50% selected places not geographically location and proximity to the house. As a rule, order 60% seats in each school is reserved for the children of teachers, as well as siblings of students who are already enrolled in the institution.
In elementary school, children do not pass any exams. Until 2012 years in the education system of Hong Kong has been provided only 2 exam first - at the end of junior high school, the second - after training in upper secondary school. But are found 2013 year changes, and now student will need to pass a single exam - after completion of the entire training cycle.
Hong Kong students can choose for yourself one of several courses: study in the morning, afternoon or all day long. In most educational institutions is a priority is the last option. In some programs, in addition to the basic disciplines and focuses on student success beyond the walls of the school. The classes are conducted in Chinese, as an additional second language is English.
Hong Kong's education system in recent years has modernized here, as in South Korea, a lot of attention is paid to replace paper-based digital information.
Despite the fact that the number of students in a class can reach 40 people, teacher training schedule does not cost more 10-12 hours per week.
As in other schools in the Asian region, in Japan the structure of school education practically does not differ from those described above. The child is waiting for three years in kindergarten (optional), then 6 years in primary school, after which he spends 3 a year in junior high school and completes his studies with three years in senior high school. And the compulsory curriculum includes only elementary and incomplete secondary schools. After that, after reaching 15-year-old age, he can completely stop his studies. However, as statistics show, almost 95% of Japanese students still go to senior high school.
The training program in this country is practically no different from usual, it includes items aimed at the study of the native language, mathematics, literature, social sciences, music and physical education. In addition to them, can go moral education and self-control.
Education in primary and lower secondary school based on the principle "integrity" when every time the students focused on solving the same problem. But despite this, classes are rarely lecture nature, the more they look like a joint study and discussion of the issue being studied in separate projects and general assignments.
If until recently, students were forced to study in 6 days a week and do a tremendous amount of homework, paying extra time and still coaching, especially during the preparation for exams, thanks to the new reforms now they learn 5 days a week. However, the amount of homework has not decreased.
In Japanese schools are mandatory two exam at the end of junior high school and at the end of secondary high school. And the results of such tests that largely determine where student gets on the next stage of learning. Evaluation of knowledge on the basis of various tests and homework. Moreover, the class teacher becomes a mentor who helps not only in school, but also outside it.
In Japan, the teacher - quite respectable people, and get a very difficult profession. For example, of the total number of people willing to get this profession really get a diploma teachers only 14%, of which only 30-40% find employment in schools.
Teacher with 15-year experience in this country can receive the order 38 thousand euros per year, and the time spent in front of an audience, they almost 2 times less than their American counterparts (27% against 53% in the U.S.).
Singapore school enrolls children from six years. The structure of education is as follows: there is a compulsory elementary school, where children spend 6 years, followed by high school, numbering a lot of options, and completes the process of pre-university training course.
In primary school, children learn before they reach 12 years, here they are taught in their native language and compulsory English, mathematics and many other smaller, but no less important items, such as music, physical education, aesthetic education, and others. After completing primary school, children pass a mandatory exam - Primary School Leaving Examination.
Passing the exam, they are in principle, this may complete his studies, but in the vast majority of young people still go to the next step. In high school, the program is divided into several types, among them: a special course duration 4-6 years, rapid course lasting 4 year normal academic course duration 5 years, normal technical course designed by 4 year, and pre-service, which takes 1- 4 year.
After passing the high school students receive a certificate of general education, the type of which depends on the course (in order of increasing levels of N, O and A). Having received such a document, they can stop or continue training at the university, then received a certificate category «A».
Teacher positions in Singapore not take everyone. Typically, the selection is made from the best 30% of college graduates. However, they can not always take as competition for places teachers are always very large.
The average salary of a teacher is Singapore at 35 thousand euros per year, and here there is a bonus system, which allows you to increase earnings up to 30% of salary. Bonuses are calculated annually and are dependent on the test results of the teacher, during which it evaluated the professional quality, available capacity and active participation in the life of the school.
On the British education system PISA ratings virtually no impact. In terms of education, this country has always been, is and will be popular because of the elitism of the local schools, especially if it comes to a boarding school with centuries of history.
The majority of these schools belong to the elite class, as there is not each take, and in terms of finance training they will be effective only well-off people. On the other hand, boarding schools in the UK are often separated by gender, either for girls or for boys. For separate education provides a lot of arguments, as, indeed, and for the joint, so the deciding factor here have neither one nor the other.
In general, training in the UK begins with 5 years. In elementary school, children are until they reach the age of 12 years. As a rule, homework at this stage of training is absent. This was introduced only in the 2012 year, when teachers were given the opportunity to decide independently, to ask children homework or not. At the stage of education in the elementary school, the examination of the progress in subjects is carried out in the form of the delivery of an essay or a project, after the completion of the course, the Common Entrance Examination exam follows. His successful surrender opens the door for the pupil to the secondary school, after which (at 16 years) the teenager takes the next GCSE exam for the Certificate of General Secondary Education. This certificate must necessarily be for every teenager in the UK.
The main feature of British schools is fierce attachment to the traditions of education in this country. Thus, the essential attributes are school uniforms, student participation in charity events and regular social work. In classes with the children until they reach 8 years engaged one teacher, and then gradually emerging teachers in specific subjects, the main task - to prepare students to pass the required exam.
Training Program in closed boarding school can be developed individually for each student or group of students gathered abilities. There are often taught additional items that may not be in a regular school. Such is not precluded, since private schools operates separate training regulations, allowing schools to develop their own program. So, make up a certain minimum to which the student may add additional courses he needed.
In Holland you can send a child to preschool with 3-4 years, with up to 5 12 years he has necessarily to go to primary school, after which he will pass the exam.
Depending on the results of the examination, the teenager may choose to further preparatory secondary education (VMBO) duration 4 year general secondary or pre-university education (HAVO) 5 years duration, or pre-university education (VWO), calculated on 6 years. Programs of the first two years of training in these areas are almost identical to what has been done to pdrostok could easily change its course if he suddenly changed his mind for some reason. With 2007 years training in one of the above programs for all students Holland is mandatory.
Educational standards in this country are developed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, but any school can supplement the approved programs with any subjects at its discretion. In elementary school children are taught at once three languages: Dutch, Frisian and English. In addition to them are mathematics, social studies, as well as drawing and physical education. Education in primary school ends with an exam in the form of a test, which is focused primarily on identifying the ability of a particular student in certain disciplines. In addition, teachers along with the director compile reports on each student, which are taken into account when entering a teenager in high school.
Knowledge students are evaluated in much the same way as in Russian schools: Dutch students receive grades for homework, class work and oral examinations. Active participation in the schools take pupils and parents, allowing them to delve into educational issues, monitor progress of their children and, if necessary, to guide them in the right direction.
Nevertheless, despite all the achievements of the Dutch school, they have a clear shortage of good teachers. And this despite the fact that the average salary of a teacher in this country is about 60 thousand dollars a year. The government is very closely monitoring this, and constantly making steps towards upgrading the system.
Cyprus educational system represented schools primary and secondary level. Also on the island are schools of vocational training focused on training qualified personnel for production and tourism business.
As a rule, the initial stage of education is a pre-school educational institution. In Cyprus, this can be a public, private or public kindergarten (the latter are organized and funded by parent associations). In 5,5 years the child is already waiting in elementary school. Here, from 1 to 3 class, they will be taught basic skills of writing, reading and counting, in 4-5 classes, classes will be added to these subjects in foreign languages (it can be English, French, Arabic, Armenian, and some schools of Limassol are taught by even Russian language), music, physical culture and various subjects of a humanitarian profile.
After primary school children go to the next level and within three already enrolled in school. This is the second stage of the nine-year compulsory education, adopted in Cyprus.
After high school teens can stop their education or go to high school elective classes that have a specific subject specialization. Since such schools Cyprus excluded from mandatory programs, training in them is paid. Here teenagers studying three groups of subjects, including basic (they all are required), and special electives. Selectable from classical sciences, humanities profile subjects of Physics and Mathematics, economics and foreign languages.
As an alternative secondary education are private schools that accept students for a fee. Some of them in the curriculum emphasize the study of foreign languages, the most popular of which are French, English and Italian.