Larnaca - a small port town, which has recently enjoyed great popularity among tourists.
The Church of St. Lazarus is one of the oldest structures erected on the grave of Lazarus, resurrected by Christ. As the legends say, Lazar lived after the resurrection in Cyprus, and here his sarcophagus is located. According to one of the options, the very name of the city of Larnaca (Cyprus) comes from the word "larnax" - a coffin, a sarcophagus, and the sarcophagus of Lazarus is meant. Camares's camouflage is a place where tourists like to be photographed: it is perfectly preserved and today admires its powerful beauty . The aqueduct was successfully used to supply drinking water almost to 1940 year, and only then the pipes with water were brought to the city. The salt lake of Aliki is a natural landmark. From December to March, it is filled with rainwater, and here migratory birds winter: pink flamingos, black swans, white herons. In summer, it dries up, but from the heat you can take shelter in an amazing eucalyptus grove on the shore. The village of Lefkara is located next to the city, and here we are weaving amazing lace over unchanging patterns. In addition, things are made here and jewelry made of silver. The village is magnificent in itself, she was admired by Leonardo da Vinci, and today she has preserved her greatness and originality.
Those who are interested in religion, must visit the ornate temples and mosques, visit the ancient monastery. In general, you return from a trip with a lot of impressions, seeing unique sights of Larnaca!
The town itself is certainly worth a stroll along the promenade, which is considered his trademark. Here you can admire the bay with white yachts, enjoying a glass of local wine or dine in the restaurant. Near the town, in the east, is the beach area where the hotels are right in the coastal sand. Larnaca is considered fairly affordable resort and here often go on vacation with the children's parents.
Here a good vacation walk among palm avenues, enjoy the bright colors of tropical flowers. Near the waterfront - the ancient streets of the city, where there is also a fairly large supermarkets, small shops and artisans - a city famous for its pottery workshops, so that the issue of gifts will definitely resolved.
In Larnaca (Cyprus) can come to the feast of the Holy Trinity: it is very interesting to celebrate. Undergoing major local festivals, which are called "Kataklizmus." All the people gather on the beach, and the priest throws a wooden cross sea water: whoever finds it in the water, would be King holiday. Disclosed order in which to celebrate the beginning of summer all have to swim in the sea. Those who do not want to swim, throw into the water force. Residents and tourists have fun and celebrate the beginning of summer.
If you want easy and relax on the island, go to Larnaca and you are waiting for an unforgettable experience of wonderful nature, warm sea, authentic streets and comfortable hotels!
In Larnaca and its surroundings are a lot of monuments of different ages, like the ancient church of St. Lazarus, was built at the behest of the Byzantine Emperor Leo the Wise over the tomb of St. Lazarus - the patron saint of Larnaca; a medieval fort, known Sultan Tekke Mosque Hala at Salt Lake, the famous village of Lefkara and many others.
Outdoor Zeno of Kition (Zenon Kitieos Street) is the building of the Museum of Peridesa, the largest private collection of antique and historical finds in Cyprus. He laid the foundation scholar and archaeologist Demetris Perides (1811-1895) with his family. The number of exhibits exceeds 2500, among them there are remarkable examples of ceramics of different eras.
In 1970-ies in Cyprus appear governmental organizations whose primary purpose is to assist in the preservation of cultural heritage in the country. One such organization is the Foundation Pieridisa (Pierides Foundation), founded in 1974, on the initiative of his descendants. Currently, the Foundation supports a variety of archaeological research, excavation, participates in the creation of museums and cultural centers; organizes lectures, international symposia and presentations by various scientists in Cyprus.
With the support and direct participation of the Fund were created several museum, cultural and educational centers in Cyprus and Greece. Among them Pieridisa Archaeological Museum in Larnaca.
Pieridisa Archaeological Museum is located in a beautiful mansion owned by the Mayor of Larnaca, MP and Honorary Consul of Sweden and Germany, Cyprus Zeno Pieridisu (1900-1967 years). The basis of the exhibition was the collection of archaeological treasures collected by scientists kiprologom Dimitris Pieridisom (1811-1895 years.), Zeno's grandfather. Five generations of the family continued Pieridis started their ancestors case in 1974 year passed this collection to the private funds Peridisa.
Pieridi Museum in Larnaca, the beginning of a collection that will put an archaeologist Dimitris Pieridis 1839 in the city, exhibits a collection of Cypriot antiquities from the copper to the XIV century., Formed as a result of collecting five generations of family Pieridis.
Among the exhibits - crockery and pottery from different eras, a collection of glass and black pottery of Attic origin, sculpture, embroidery and samples of clothing, furniture, weapons from different eras, ranging from Neolithic times. The museum has a rich collection of Cypriot arts and crafts.
If you walk along the waterfront of the city to the south, by the end of the street Athens (Athens Street) you can go directly to the old Turkish fortress. It was built in 1625 year to defend the city and later served as a prison. And at the beginning of British rule in 1878 year it was also a prison, and then it turned into the police department. Today, the castle is a museum, which recreates, for example, the camera for the gallows.
It is one of the oldest architectural monuments of Larnaca with a rich history. In 900, the Byzantine emperor Leo VI built this church over the grave of Lazarus (empty, as rumor had it). It seems that this saint, after his second death, was able to travel more than during life. His body was transported from Kition to Constantinople and, at last, found peace in Marseilles. On his grave, discovered here around 890 year, there is a Greek inscription: "Lazarus, a friend of Christ." Although there was practically nothing left from the original building, in the 17th century the church was recreated according to the original plan and complemented with an impressive bell tower. This is one of the few belfries that the Turks allowed to erect until 1857. In the wooden iconostasis, which separates the altar part from the hall for the parishioners, there are some very remarkable carvings of the XVIII century. In the crypt of the temple there is a marble sarcophagus, which is considered the former tomb of Lazarus.
Church of St. Lazarus - one of the attractions of Larnaca.
Resurrection in Bethany, in a small village to the southeast of Jerusalem, the righteous Lazarus, the brother of Martha and Mary, whom the Lord himself called his friend, greatly angered the Jews. Subject to mortal danger, after the murder of the holy first martyr Stephen, Saint Lazarus was taken to the seaside, set in a boat without oars and removed from the borders of Judea. By divine vengeance, Saint Lazarus, along with the disciple of the Lord Maximinus and Saint Calidonia, the Blind Healed Lord, sailed to the shores of Cyprus. Having resurrected for thirty years "from generation," he lived on the island for more than thirty years. Here Saint Lazarus met the holy apostles Paul and Barnabas. They were elevated to the bishops of the city of Kitia (Kition, from the Jews called Hetim). The ruins of the ancient city of Kition are found during archaeological excavations and are available for inspection.
The following tradition is associated with the name of the righteous Lazarus. Arriving on the island on a hot summer day, and circumventing the neighborhood of Kition in search of a refuge, the righteous Lazarus wanted to quench his thirst. Not finding a source nearby, he asked for a brush of grapes from a woman working near her house. She refused the saint in his humble request, referring to a crop failure and a drought. Leaving, the righteous Lazarus said: "So let it be withered as a punishment for lying, and turn into a salt lake." Since then, five kilometers west of Larnaca, Cypriots have shown the Salt Lake to pilgrims and tourists and are renowned for their hospitality. From December to March, hundreds of white and pink flamingos hibernate here. From the road leading to the city and the airport, you will see a magnificent view of the mountains reflected in the lake, among which the summit of the Holy Cross with the monastery of Stavrovouni dominates.
Righteous Lazarus was very eager to meet with the Mother of God, but because of persecution, he could not leave the island. Having received a message from the Most Holy Theotokos and sending a ship for Her from Kition, he was expecting Her arrival. After leaving the borders of Palestine, the Blessed Virgin Mary, accompanied by the Apostle John the Theologian and other companions, set off on a journey across the Mediterranean Sea. In the "Tales of the Earthly Life of the Most-Holy Theotokos", published on Mount Athos by the Russian Panteleimon Monastery, the following events are described: "There was already a little way to Cyprus, when suddenly a strong wind blew, and the boatmen, with all their efforts and art, could not cope with ship. The wind, strong, went into a storm; and the ship, not listening to the terrestrial helmsman, gave himself up to the finger of God and flew away from Cyprus. Fascinated by the force of the storm into the Aegean Sea, he swiftly raced between the numerous islands of the archipelago and, without damage and the slightest loss, stopped near the shores of Mount Athos. " By the will of God the Ever-Virgin was the beginning of the monastic life on the Holy Mountain.
Returning to Jerusalem, the Mother of God visited Cyprus, blessed apostles created the local church, and gave St. Lazarus linked her hands bishop's omophorion.
After his death, Lazarus was buried in the vicinity of Kition, in a place later named "Larnaks" - "coffin, sarcophagus." On the marble tomb of the saint carried out the inscription: "Four-Lazarus, the friend of Christ".
According to legend, at the burial place of St. Lazarus in 392 year is acquired Cyprus icon of the Mother of God. On it is written the Most Holy Theotokos sitting on a throne with the Divine Infant, and at the sides are two angels with branches in their hands. The festival takes place the icon of May 3 / 20 April (Art. Art.). Copies of the icon went to many countries. In Russia, Cyprus known image of the Virgin kept in the Moscow Cathedral of the Assumption. The village Stromyn, Moscow region 22 / 9 July (Art. Art.) And 1-th week of Lent takes place the festival of the miraculous icon of Cyprus.
Lazarus relics uncovered in 898 year, when the Byzantine emperor Leo IV the Wise (886-911 years.) And transferred to the city of Constantinople, where they arranged a silver cancer, and earlier in honor of the temple was built during the reign of Emperor Basil I the Macedonian (867- 886 years.). On the day of the transfer of the relics of St. honest from Cyprus to Constantinople 30 / 17 October (Art. Art.) Celebrated his memory. Later, Frankish crusaders relics taken in the Mediterranean port city of Marseille.
Above the tomb of St. Lazarus in Cyprus in the IX century, it built a stone church in honor of Lazarus. In the early 1970 years during the restoration works in the church under the altar were discovered stone tombs, one of which is acquired part of the relics of St. Lazarus. To them has been specially made silver-gilded coffin in a bishop's miter and massacred gilded cancer (tomb), with a canopy and a small Byzantine dome, topped with a cross.
The relics of Saint Lazarus is constantly exposed to the public worship of the church in the center of the southern tower. On the specially constructed at the base of the church aisle, the entrance to which is located in the southern part of salts, pilgrims in several steps down into the low, dim podaltarnuyu part overlain by a modern concrete vault. In the east wall at the entrance to this underground room is a sacred source enclosed in a tube. There are stone tombs of rectangular shape, with heavy lids, referring to the Roman period.
There is a custom to bring to the tomb, and the icon of Saint Lazarus in the temple, in thanks for healing cast from wax figures of people and body parts, and they are in a variety of in this place. Candle shop is across the street, a few meters to the north-east of the temple of Lazarus. It made wax figures and various candles. Among them are huge festive candles, over a meter in height and a few centimeters in diameter.
There are the remains of a total of five sanctuaries, including the temple of Astarte, who built on the ruins of a place of worship of the Bronze Age. In addition, you can see fragments of the former northern city wall, the bottom of which are built of enormous boulders that resemble cyclopean walls of Mycenae. From the late Hellenistic period, but a few survived, and from the Roman period - virtually nothing.
Earlier, on the site of modern Larnaca located one of the most ancient cities of Cyprus - Kition. The ruins of one of the most important ancient city-states belong to the XIII century. BC. The area is, according to the Bible was named Kitim (Kittim), and is mentioned in ancient prophecies, "the ships must come from the coast Kitima ...". Around 1200 years. BC. the city was rebuilt Mycenaean Greeks from this period are lined with giant blocks of stone walls and a complex of five temples.
Like many Mediterranean city-states, the prosperous Kition fell into decay with the end of the Mykene rule, but was rebuilt by newly arrived Phoenicians to the island. They brought with them a powerful civilization with developed crafts, maritime trade and a rich culture. In the ports of Kitim, renamed Phoenicians in Kition, began to come ships with overseas goods, and to sail from the island loaded with copper. Perhaps, it was one of the most prosperous periods of the ancient city. A few centuries later, the Phoenician lands were conquered by the Persians, and soon the whole island was captured by Alexander the Great.
Many famous names are associated with Kition. The genus of Kition was the philosopher Zeno (336-264 BC). While living in Kition, Zeno was engaged in sea trade. Moving later to Athens, he was a disciple of several philosophers. But gradually Zeno gathered around him numerous students and founded a philosophical school of stoicism. The main idea of stoic ethics is a pre-set course of world events. The goal of man is to live "in harmony with nature." "Whoever agrees, that destiny leads, who does not agree, that it drags" - so spoke the follower of the school of stoic Seneca. Prior to the accession of Cyprus to the European Union, Zenon of Kitia was depicted on coins with a face value of 20 cents. A monument to this great philosopher is erected in the center of Larnaka.
At the Finikoudes alley in Larnaca is a statue to the glory of Kimon Athens. The famous Athenian commander and political figure Kimon led Greek warriors during the Greco-Persian wars. He always tried to prevent frequent quarrels between the Greeks, paying the main attention to the war with the Persians. In 450, a temporary truce between Athens and Sparta was possible, and Kimon again went out with the fleet to sea. With two hundred ships he went to Cyprus and besieged Kition, but died during the siege, at 449. Dying, he ordered his companions to immediately sail, hiding his death, which was executed. His fleet and land army almost simultaneously with his death defeated the Persians on land and at sea. On his grave was inscribed: "Even in death, he was the winner."
The famous healer was Apollo of Kition, whose fame spread far beyond not only Kition, but also Cyprus. He belonged to the doctors of the empirical school, he studied medicine in Alexandria about 60 BC. Many famous people of that time turned to him for help, records of this were preserved in written sources. As a therapist, he successfully practiced both surgery and traumatology. Apollo also wrote several works on medicine. In his most famous book, he talks about the application of the principles of Hippocrates in practice. A copy of this book was found in the Byzantine library. The book was written under the personal care of one of the kings of the Ptolemaic dynasty at about 81-58 BC. The work includes 30 hand-drawn illustrations. In total, Apollo of Kition was written 21 book on medicine. One of the books was devoted to the effect that alcohol had on a man, the other solely on therapy. The name of Apollon of Cthion is often mentioned in the writings of his numerous disciples.
Finally, the first bishop of Kition was the legendary Lazarus. Christianity came to Kition along with the arrival in the city of Lazarus, the friend of Christ. After his miraculous resurrection, Lazarus was persecuted in Jerusalem. According to legend, hoping to dispel the myth of St. Lazarus, the Pharisees planted him in a fragile boat with a leak and expelled from Palestine. As a result, Lazar reached the Kition coast unharmed. He became the first bishop of the ancient city and lived there for almost thirty years, preaching Christianity. Part of the relics of the saint and his tomb are still kept in the amazing beauty of the church of St. Lazarus in the center of Larnaca.
In the VII century Kition was badly damaged during the Arab attacks on the island. The chronicles say that it was almost completely destroyed, and only began to recover in the period coming to Cyprus merchants from Genoa - they drew here the possibility of extraction of salt from the Salt Lake. Kition was even for a while renamed Salina.
The modern name - Larnaca - city received at a time when the Ottoman Empire rule Cyprus. The word "larnakc" means "sarcophagus."
Excavations of the ancient Kition Swedish archeologists began in 1920 year. But, unfortunately, most of the ancient city founded by Mycenaeans even three thousand years ago, buried under modern Larnaca. However, in the ancient Kition it was found several tombs and tombs of interest to archaeologists and scholars. At the place where the finds were made, now in a museum in the open air.
One of the most valuable archaeological discoveries relating to the ancient Kition is the temple of the goddess 4 the birth of Astarte, which was built by the Phoenicians. Also, scientists have found workshops for remelting copper and making copper products. A huge number of valuable artifacts were discovered at the site of the excavations, some of them are now kept in the archaeological museum of Larnaka. Like all the cities of Cyprus, the ancient Kition has suffered many times from earthquakes. Therefore, we did not get the amazing buildings of this city-state: the port and stone walls protecting the coastline.
The finds from Kition dedicated spe% 6ialny room in the Cyprus Museum. In 1972 year, on the occasion of the International Symposium Mycenaean Archaeology, which took place in Nicosia, the Cyprus Museum was inaugurated the new great hall XXI, which presents the findings of excavations in Engomi and Kition.
Excavations of Kition open to the public Monday - Friday from 9: 00 to 14: 30, on Thursday 15: 00 to 17: 00 (closed in July and August).
Right at the entrance to Larnaca on the right side will show you a magnificent building on a Roman aqueduct. This peak engineering of that time was able to stand almost 1000 years and very well preserved. Photos on the background are obtained simply magnificent.
In a picturesque location near the Larnaca road near Larnaca - Limassol is Aqueduct Kamares-old water system, built on the orders of the Turkish ruler Bekir Pasha in the XVIII century.
Kamares Cypriots call it, which means the arch, or the name of its creator - water supply, Bekir Pasha. This rich and famous Turks, whose full name - Elhta Abu Bakir, was the ruler of the Rock (as they called Larnaca), and later the whole of Cyprus. Trying to show his affection for the inhabitants managed their city, he decided to build a water supply system, it is necessary for citizens. Until now, they were forced to bring drinking water from a source in 6 miles from the town (if it is two hours journey).
As a rule, the aqueduct was built in the form of a bridge or overpass with running water, which could be in the form of a tube, tray or channel, and to be at the intersection of the aqueduct from the ravine or canyon road.
The hydraulic structure built at the expense of Bekir Pasha (it cost him 50 thousand Grosso) consists of 75 arches, and its total length is ten and a half kilometers. The aqueduct was built in 1746-1747 years. For its construction were used stones that were piled walls of ancient Kition, well known in the ancient world, the struggle for the liberation of Cyprus from the Persians, and went down in history as the birthplace of the great Greek philosopher Zeno, who founded the school of Stoicism in Athens.
The remains of the aqueduct are well preserved to this day. Some parts of the old water supply system can be seen from the road of Larnaca - Limassol and fields between the road and the salt lake, they consist of 31, 12 and 32 arches.
Almost 200 years aqueduct supplied the city with drinking water. It has been used for its intended purpose to 1939 years, when it was replaced by a modern water system. On the back of the Cypriot lira released in 1961 year, there is a picture of the aqueduct.
Years have passed. Larnaka has grown so much that the water pipeline, once located far outside the city, gradually turned out to be almost in the center of one of its areas where active housing construction is being conducted. Now, in the municipality of Larnaka there is a committee, which includes representatives of various specialties. Their task is to monitor the restoration work, as well as landscaping of the area in the immediate vicinity of Kamares. In addition, measures are being taken to stop housing construction there and turn this part of the city into a pedestrian tourist zone.
In the modern building of the District Museum there is a curious collection of prehistoric and antique finds from Larnaka County. They refer to the period from the Neolithic to the reign of the Romans. The exhibition of exhibits from Kition is perfectly decorated, among which there are several elegant alabaster vases, as well as tools, coins and lamps. Also interesting are the Mycenae craters (vases) and the figure of the gnome-like Egyptian god Besa, carved from ivory. In the windows at the wall you can see other things that show how changeable was the history of Cyprus: earthenware scarabs, cylindrical seals, bone tools and decorated with relief stone blocks from Hirokitia.
In a modern building of the Archaeological Museum of the District of Larnaca, which is located on the square Kalogreon stored curious collection of prehistoric and ancient finds from the Larnaca district. The exhibits date from the Neolithic to the Roman periods, including the tomb of the Neolithic Choirokoitia, terracotta figurines ritual, Roman glassware.
Fantastic exhibition of framed pieces of Kition, including several elegant alabaster vases, as well as tools, coins and lamps. Kition archaeological site is located directly behind the museum, so along with a tour of the museum itself, you can see the remains of the walls erected, is believed to be more Mycenaeans in the XIII century. BC.
Larnaca Archaeological Museum contains such particularly interesting antiquities as the Mycenaean craters (vases) and the figure of the Egyptian god Bes gnomopodobnogo carved from ivory. In the windows of the wall, you can see other exhibits showing how fickle was the history of Cyprus: faience scarabs, cylinder seals, bone tools and decorated with reliefs of stone blocks from the ancient settlement of Choirokoitia-time VI millennium BC. e.
This is an important place of pilgrimage for Muslims, especially on such festive days as Shekir-Bairam and Kurban-Bayram. In this holy place is the grave of Umm Haram, the aunt of the Prophet Muhammad. As the wife of the viceroy of Palestine, she accompanied him to the Sultan's retinue during the conquest of Cyprus in 647, under Caliph Oman. Here she died, having fallen from the mule. In 1816, a mosque was built over her grave, an octagonal building with a minaret, surrounded by the buildings of a former dervish monastery (Turkish tekke). The place of burial is indicated by three stones, brought, according to legend, from Mount Sinai; say that one of them has been floating in the air for several centuries.
In 5 km west of Larnaka (Larnaca near the airport), on the west bank of the salt lake of Aliki, famous for the fact that here in the winter migrating pink flamingos, rises the Hala Sultan Tekke Mosque - one of the few Muslim shrines erected in honor of the woman. Hala Sultan Tekke was built in 1816, in the burial place of Umm Haram, a relative of the Prophet Mohammed, who died here in 649, during the first Arab invasion.
As the legend says, Umm Haram was the wife of one of the closest followers of the Prophet Muhammad, the founder of one of the world's religions - Islam. Um Kharam was a fairly notable lady at the court of Muhammad. From two marriages she had two sons, the youngest of whom was called Muhammad. And her nephew served with the Prophet as secretary from the age of eight. According to the Muslim tradition, Allah appeared in a dream to the Prophet when he stopped for the night in the house of Um Haram. A number of researchers believe that the true name of Umm Haram has not reached our days. According to another version, this noble Muslim woman was the adoptive mother of the Prophet Muhammad.
Whoever she was brought to the Prophet, it is known that she has decided to take part in the war, the purpose of which was to spread Islam among unbelievers. According to the tradition in those days the nobles Arab women accompanied their husbands and brothers for a long voyage. In 649 year Umm Haram came to Cyprus. In the vicinity of Larnaca on the shores of the salt lake of her mule he stumbled on a rock, the woman fell, broke his neck and died instantly. Umm Haram was buried on the site of his death.
According to another legend, the adoptive mother of Prophet Muhammad Umm Haram arrived in Cyprus with the first detachments of Arab conquerors in 649. Traditionally, noble Arab women accompanied husbands and brothers in long voyages, caring for the wounded, inspired "warriors of Allah" for heroic deeds. During one of the battles in the vicinity of Larnaka, near Salt Lake, Umm Haram fell from her horse and crashed to death. She was buried in the same place in the grave, which was crowned with a block of a stone meteorite weighing 15 tons, allegedly brought by angels, either from the sacred mountain of Sinai or from Mecca (probably the place where the meteorite fell).
The tomb of Umm Haram was considered sacred even in 17 century, when it was known only as "the grave of an old woman." Muslims and Orthodox Christians came to the stone, one of the legends represent the meteorite to cure the disease. These pilgrimages and allowed dervish Sheikh Hassan found buried Umm Haram.
The composition of the architectural complex of the Hala Sultan Tekke mosque itself included, mausoleum, minaret and residential buildings (male and female) for employees of the former monastery and pilgrims dervishes. Hala Sultan Tekke is considered the fourth sacred Muslim world after Mecca, Muhammad's tomb in Medina and Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, and is the main shrine of Muslims in Cyprus.
The complex was built by representatives of the Ottoman Empire which ruled Cyprus over the XVIII-XIX centuries: the mausoleum was erected over the burial place of Umm Haram in the year 1760, 1816 and was built octagonal mosque with a minaret and related buildings and smashed a magnificent garden with fountains. Up until the First World War, Turkish warships passing by Larnaca, lower a little flags and gave the gun salute. Pilgrims from around the world come to worship the one of the major Muslim shrines.
After the Turkish invasion 1974, the building of the mosque ceased to be used for its intended purpose. Only twice a year - during the two most important Muslim holidays of the year: the day of Eid al-Adha (Feast of Sacrifice) and Eid al-Adha (Feast of the completion of fasting after the month of Ramadan) in the Hala Sultan Tekke held worship: in these days with the occupied territories bow to the shrine of Muslim Turkish Cypriots come.
To the east of the mosque building during construction were found fragments of settlements dating from the Bronze Age. Among the archaeological finds it should be noted Mycenaean period ceramics, ivories and scepter in the shape of a lotus. In 1978 year far away from Hala Sultan Tekke it was discovered treasure with 23 objects of pure gold. Found values exhibited in the Turkish Fort in Larnaca.
Sarcophagus of Umm Haram is in the annexe at three large stone slabs, which, as Muslims believe, came here from Mecca after the death of Umm Haram. In the next room there is another burial. Under an alabaster tomb with golden inscriptions rests Khadija - grandmother recently deceased King Hussein of Jordan.
The second floor has a specially fenced compartment designed for women. Previously, according to Chris, there was a private staircase leading directly from the street into the female part. But now a Muslim come to the mosque through the main entrance, along with men and then rise in the allotted space for them.
The mosque is open daily. Everyone has the right to enter the premises. Now you can go to Tekke Umm Haram through the stone gate, adorned with Arabic script. Above them are carved lines from the Koran. Behind the gate there is a mosque and a spacious house for pilgrims. Accurate paths cut through the garden. When the wind blows, the usual silence for this place is broken only by the rustle of palm leaves and the screams of migratory birds from a nearby lake. A local guide will show the mosque for free and tell its story. Women can also go to Hala Sultan Tekke. In front of the mosque building is a fountain for washing feet: according to the Muslim tradition, before entering the mosque and praying, you must always wash your feet with water. Before entering the mosque, it is customary to take off shoes.
Working hours: September-March: 09.00-17.00, April-August: 07.30-19.30
Admission is free.
In the district of Larnaca airport is Salt Lake or, as it is called in Greek, Aliki (Aliki) - the most notable natural landmark in Cyprus. At the height of summer, the lake dries up, leaving the surface to see 10 crystalline salt. From December to March, during the rainy season, the lake is filled with water and converted into a temporary home for wintering migratory birds in Cyprus: pink flamingos, egrets, black swans, ducks.
Aliki - a natural phenomenon that attracts scientists. And until recently it was the site of the lake, which had economic value - salt mined here.
The road leading to the airport, divides the lake into two parts. Most located on the right side. Salt Lake area of five square kilometers, and its perimeter - more than eleven kilometers. The lake is located below sea level on average two and a half meters. As noted in their research Anastasios Stasys essentially four lakes, including Aliki - the main thing, and that it is a source of salt. Incidentally, only in Cyprus.
Legend occurrence of Salt Lake says that once this place was beautiful vineyard owned by an elderly woman. One day, passing by Lazar (St. Lazarus, patron of Larnaca), tired and thirsty, asked her a bunch of grapes, but the greedy old woman replied that she did not. Then the Holy pointing to a basket filled with grapes, asked: "What's that?". I got an answer: "Salt" saddened that lie Lazarus said: "Let all turn to salt."
Interesting scientific version of the appearance of the lake. About a million years ago on the site of today's Larnaca airport and the lake was a gulf. Later, under the influence of tides and currents, in the southern part of the Gulf formed a berm. Over time, it turned into a corner of the land. At the same time, and the tectonic shifts taking place, which resulted in the plain land rose and the sea, on the contrary, dropped.
Confirms the correctness of the assumptions and the scientific archaeological excavations carried out in the year 1971-near Hala Sultan Tekke. It was discovered a port city, whose existence dates back to 11 century BC. Brass anchor ships of various countries, the port itself, built in the shape of a rectangle, - irrefutable evidence of the origin of Aliki: Part of the bay separated from the sea and formed a lake.
Regarding the theory of the origin of salt in the lake, scientists do not have a single opinion. Some of them believe that the source is the vast underground reserves of mineral salts. Storm water that fill the lake in the winter months, help to wash away the surface of these stocks. According to studies, mineral salt deposits exceeds eight million tonnes.
Other scientists involved in this issue, argue that salt is mainly formed by penetrating into the lake of seawater. Between the sea and the lake remained petrified passages that allow water to flow into the sea from the lake. The correctness of this scientific proof version of chemical analyzes of water from the lake, in many ways similar to seawater. The water does not cease to penetrate the lake and in the summer, just happens evaporation due to high temperatures.
For centuries, Salt Lake played a significant role in the economy of the island. In historical documents the reign of the Venetians (1489 - 1571 years.) Noted that the sale of salt was accomplished abroad on a large scale: more than seventy ships, loaded with salt Aliki annually from Cyprus to Venice. The salt trade was one of the main sources of income of the Venetian state.
Salt was collected until the end of the last century. The collection was carried out in the summer months, when the water in the lake dried up and the salt was on the surface. The territory of the lake was divided into sections between workers. A half-meter path was laid to the lake, along which collectors of salt and donkeys moved. These cute animals played an important role in this process and were an indispensable means for transporting salt. The path was lined with bedding, as under the layer of salt there was black mud. It was this dirt that did not allow the use of mechanical methods - the salt was collected almost primitively: a shovel. This process lasted for two weeks.
Then the salt is piled in baskets and loaded their donkeys. Even beyond the salt lake poured into large piles. It takes nearly four weeks. Prior to the sale of salt had to stay in a big pile, made in the shape of a pyramid, about a year.
About a hundred workers were involved in the collection of salt. Wages depend on the number of the assembled product. There are two categories of the quality of the resulting salt: Good and higher. The extraction of salt was a state monopoly. Anastasios Stasys cites data according to which, for example, in 1982 has been collected ten thousand tons of salt cost almost 750.000 pounds.
Today, salt is not collected. This is largely explained by the contamination of the lake and surrounding areas. However, Salt Lake does not cease to play an important role in the life of Larnaca. Only now it is not economic, and aesthetic. National interest is expressed no longer in the amount of earnings, and in an effort to preserve this natural phenomenon.
A lot of tourists and local residents gather in winter at its shores to admire the almost immovable water surface, reflecting shapes, colors and shadows; on the graceful flamingos, who took a fancy to this place for their wintering. And in hot days you can hide from the sun in the eucalyptus grove that stretches near Aliki. More than once environmentalists have already sounded an alarm about the state of the lake - at the moment it causes certain concerns. State programs have developed a program to protect the ecological environment of the area. Only her consistent holding will save the Salt Lake - an amazing, created by nature, decoration of Larnaka.
On the western shore of the lake is the Hala Sultan Tekke Mosque - one of the few Muslim shrines erected in honor of the woman. As if in a mirror reflects an oasis of Umm Haram in the lake from December to March.
The name of the church - Panagia Angeloktisti (Panayia Angeloktisti) - means "created the angels." It boasts a model of the V century mosaics. This masterpiece adorns the apse and depicts the Virgin Mary with the archangels Gabriel and Michael.
In the village of Kitty eleven kilometers west of Larnaca is a stone church in honor of Panagia Angeloktisti - most Blessed Virgin Angelozdannoy.
According to the legend, the first Orthodox church was erected on this place by angels in one night. In the arch of the altar apse of a modest in appearance the temple is a mosaic dating from the second half - the end of the VI century. This is one of the best examples of the Byzantine icon-painting school, which has survived to this day. During his pilgrimage to Cyprus in the XVIII century, the temple in Kitty was visited and described by the monk Vasily Grigorovich-Barsky. Already at the end of the XIX century, in the art criticism, this mosaic was placed on a par with the ancient mosaics of Ravenna and Rome, paintings of the church of St. Demetrius in Thessalonica (Thessaloniki). In 1895, the Russian mosaic was surveyed, photographed and described by the Russian archaeologist Ya.I. Smirnov. The highest established Committee of Trusteeship of Russian icon painting in 1907 ordered the artist NK Kluge a watercolor copy of the mosaic. Subsequently, it was acquired and published in 1911 in the Izvestia of the Russian Archaeological Institute in Constantinople. About the mosaic of Kitai wrote in his book "Iconography of the Mother of God", published in the early XX century, a historian and art historian, Academician NP Kondakov. It is revealed from the later layers during the restoration of the temple in 1952 year and since then has been the object of worship for many thousands of believers.
Mosaic refers to the oldest pre-iconic period, and surprisingly thin in pattern, strict and simple. But it was the purity and clarity of the design in the icon painting that were practically lost under the influence of secular European art in the 17th-19th centuries in all countries professing Orthodoxy. Above the picture depicted on a gold background in the growth of the Mother of God with the Bogomladen in her arms, there is a large Greek inscription - "Saint Mary". The Most Holy Theotokos is depicted in a purple maforia, chiton and red shoes, the Bogomladenets dressed in golden cloth with a scroll in her hands. Belongs to the iconographic type of the Odigitria. The wings of the archangels are colored with bright peacock feathers.
The iconostasis arranged in the XVIII century, in the first tier to the left of the royal doors remained a rare image of St. George the Victorious, and Demetrius. They are written together on one board, in the form of soldiers on horseback. St. George spearing lying at the feet of the horse snake.
Currently, three-part temple. The ancient temple is included in the apse of the XII century, which is adjacent to the south of Latin (Frankish) the chapel of the XIII century, was built at the expense of family Zimbele with their family coat of arms above the entrance. There is arranged a small museum of Byzantine icons and church plates. From the north to the temple attached chapel in honor of the Holy disinterested Cosmas and Damian, built in the XII century and painted in the XV century. Behind the altar of the temple grows a huge tree, is considered one of the oldest in this part of the island.
Built in 1421 by King John de Lusignan. On the frescoes is the image of the king and his wife, Charlotte de Bourbon, knelt before Jesus.
In 32 km from Larnaca and 35 km south of Nicosia, in the village of Pyrga located "Royal Chapel" (or Chapel of Saint Catherine), built in 1421 by King John (Janus) of Lusignan, under the authority of which Cyprus was a 1192 1489 on year ("luzinyansky" or the Frankish period in Cyprus).
In the chapel are preserved wall paintings dating from the XV century. Most of the frescoes executed in the traditional Byzantine style. Some figures, such as Our Lady Protectress "with the infant Jesus, proves acquaintance with the art of the unknown painter of Italian Renaissance masters.
In the scene of "The Crucifixion", placed above the altar depicts the royal married couple kneel before Jesus: John de Lusignan (1398-1432 years.) And his second wife Charlotte Bourbon. The frescoes are accompanied by inscriptions. At the court said in the Old French language, and the painter seems poorly owned diploma, made mistakes in the captions.
Capella has been part of the royal estate Casal Piria. Maybe the couple prayed here and July 6 1426, on the eve of battle with the Mamelukes, lost Lusignan. And the unfortunate king, who already at a young age became acquainted with Genoese prison, escorted to Cairo. A year later he bought for 200 thousand ducats collected by the Pope and European royal courts, but King John was already broken.
Royal Chapel is one of the most interesting buildings of the Frankish period.
The chapel is open daily during normal working hours. The key can be taken in a nearby coffee shop.
Monastery of St. Barbara (Ayia Varvara) (7) is a farmstead monastery Stavrovouni. Until recently, the brothers ran away all the fields and gardens of the monastery, located on the hill above. Buildings monastery belong to the XVIII century, and in the monastery garden as a botanical rarity growing lotuses. In addition, the monks are selling olive oil and honey. Opposite the entrance is a workshop (she shop) Monk-icon-painter.
Here is one of the oldest known Neolithic sites in the world, presumably referring to 7000-6000 years. BC. e. (in 1998 was declared a cultural heritage by UNESCO). Analysis of charred seeds and form blades of flint sickles confirm the fact that the then settlers grew wheat and barley. Animal bones indicate how to engage in hunting, and the first attempts at domestication of cattle. In the later cultural layer of the settlement, about 3500 BC. e., found objects made of ceramics. Finds from Choirokoitia can be seen in the Museum of Cyprus in Nicosia.
The ancient settlement of Hirokitiya (named after the name of the nearby village), because of its safety and abundance of finds, is unique among Neolithic archaeological sites throughout the Mediterranean. Researchers still do not understand the origin of this ancient Cypriot culture. A number of local and foreign historians believe that its early phases must be sought both on Cyprus itself and on the Asian mainland. The results of archaeological research allow us to talk about the contacts of the inhabitants of Hirokithia with Anatolia, with the ancient settlements of Antioch Valley and Northern Syria. The radiocarbon analysis indicates that the inhabiting of Hirokite occurred approximately in 5000 BC.
2 December 1998 city Chirokotia included in the UNESCO World Heritage List under the number 848 according to IV, V, VI criteria, since this settlement, firstly, the earliest site for the study of the Cyprian proceramic Neolith (criterion IV); secondly, a characteristic example of a significant human settlement, fragile as a result of its great antiquity and its location in a rapidly changing environment (criterion V); Finally, this settlement is associated with ideas and beliefs of historical importance, which are manifested in several aspects of material culture: for example, the use of figurines in funeral rites indicates a ritual and religious practice (criterion VI). The site was discovered in 1934 by P. Dickeyos, who made further archaeological work there from 1936 to 1946. Since 1977, excavations have begun under the direction of Alain Le Bren, director of the French archaeological mission in Cyprus.
During the archaeological site of Choirokoitia has been found in a number of different objects. They talk about the existence of Cyprus highly Neolithic culture. The graves were found necklaces, pins, spindles, suspension, stone beads. In the manufacture of stone tools used for the handles of bone, it is manufactured from pins and needles, spindles.
During the excavations, many tools were found from obsidian (volcanic glass) and bones, fragments of sickles from silicon, stone millstones. The ancient islanders were familiar with spinning and weaving, skillfully crafted stone and wood. Stone utensils made by their hands are simple in form, but carefully crafted: its surface is decorated with ornament in the form of relief cross-shaped or incised figures. Vessels, mostly flat and open, have a wide variety of shapes. Almost on each of them there is a spout for a drain. On the arms of individual vessels depicted human or animal (often sheep and bull) heads. Attempts have been made to produce clay pots, but without noticeable success.
In the settlement can be traced and the emergence of certain religious beliefs. This primarily refers to the burial rite, reflects a belief in the afterlife. In Choirkoitia found idols - samples of ancient sculpture of Cyprus. This flat stone with a sexless figures arbitrarily interpreted heads and one female figure of unbaked clay.
Burials arranged between the houses or in the under floors. Often this lonely grave where the deceased was placed in a contorted position. Along with the skeleton usually find stone vessels, broken out ritual reasons. Sometimes with the female skeleton found rich funeral gifts that can make the assumption that some women were particularly honored. In the body of the deceased is usually put a heavy object - a stone slab or a millstone, as the dead inspire fear.
A study of the remains of well-preserved skeletons and helped restore the look of the inhabitants of the settlement. All of them were stunted: men about 1,6 m, and the growth of women does not exceed m 1,5. The average life expectancy for men - 35 years, women - 33,5 years.
Finds from Choirokoitia make no small part of the collection of the Museum of Cyprus.
Since the Middle Ages, it is known for its handmade lace "lefkaritika." They say that even Leonardo da Vinci during his stay on the island is bought lace for altar veil Duomo. In addition, the village has a silversmith, who create filigree trinkets, and small enterprise, which produces Turkish delight (Gk. 'Lukumi ").
The village of Lefkara is located on the southern slopes of the Troodos Mountains in the Larnaca district. Traditional Cypriot architecture and flavor shopping streets of the village probably will not leave anyone indifferent.
To this day the village Lefkara retained not only the architecture, but also folk crafts. Of course, great interest is the set of surviving in the pristine beauty of the village buildings. Houses and shops of white limestone (which hence the name of the village) are decorated with small windows and flat roofs. Structurally, the village is divided into upper (Pano) and Lower (Kato) Lefkara. Besides its architectural identity Lefkara is famous in the whole of Cyprus and far beyond the island of lace products and products from handmade silver.
There is a legend according to which in 1481 Leonardo da Vinci was fascinated by skill lefkarskih lace and lace garments purchased at the main altar of the Duomo in Milan. True or not, but the lace cover in this cathedral you can view today, and then, if there is a desire to compare with what they are doing in Lefkara.
In the village you can still see in the streets right now, as craftsmen weave the most complicated ornaments on napkins, tablecloths and bedspreads. Do not be surprised if suddenly for a product you will be called a high price. On some specimens a month of painstaking work takes place. However, in most cases, the cost of Lefkara's products is reasonable. Famous laces are sold here in the village. A lot of shops will offer products of local craftsmen. In many such shops you will find unique things, like which you can not buy anywhere else in the world. It is worth saying a few words about the lace Lefkara itself: a classic tablecloth decorated with "lefkaritikoy" is made only from the Irish jacquard and can be beige or white flowers. Lace is woven into fabric and forms a complex geometric ornament that looks the same on both sides. Residents of Lefkara do not make any changes to the design of the patterns: the secrets of mastery are passed from mother to daughter for several centuries.
Not so legendary, but no less beautiful handiwork of the male population of Lefkara. Especially good filigree technique similar to the silver lace. In the early 18 century censer made with CF and other ceremonial accessories, using a special technique of forging. Today, this tradition was interrupted. But a lot of new techniques of jewelry - and now you can buy Lefkara bracelets, necklaces, earrings, spoons, dishes, trays and animal figurines made of silver.
The earliest traces of human presence on the awning relate to the Neolithic period (7500 - 5200 BC). From the end of this period it seems to have been a break yet again settled in the area during the Neolithic pottery (4500 BC). The houses are arranged in a circle, as in Choirokoitia. They are either completely made of stone, or their foundation is built of stone and the upper part of mud bricks.
Near the village are the remains of Kalavasos Neolithic settlements, tents and Choirokoitia. Neolithic Settlement Tenta Kalavasos (Kalavasos Tenta) is a catchy, futuristic protective canopy. The most interesting finding here is the silhouette of a human figure, painted with red paint. This figure is about 5000 years of age is considered to be the oldest in Cyprus flat image. A copy can be seen in the Cyprus Museum in Nicosia.
After passing the reservoir Kalavasos you popadadёte to another interesting place - a copper mine. They acted to 1974 years and is now visible only hushed railroad that once did not rest, day or night. Copper ore mined in Cyprus, famous for its quality throughout the Mediterranean. Preserved abundant evidence that the Cyprus ore valued among the Phoenicians, and among the Romans. It gave the name of the island of copper - Cyprus comes from cuprum, which means "copper". Therefore, in the annals and chronicles the island often called copper.
One of the largest ore deposits was the Kalavasos region (in 40 km from Larnaka). And although copper ore in the village of Kalavasos was mined from ancient times, the peak of its production fell on the 40-50-e of the XX century. In those days, the village flourished. In the middle of the last century, a message on the railway connecting Kalavasos to the port of Vasiliko (where copper ore was loaded on ships) did not cease day or night. However, soon the mines located at 6 km from the settlement were depleted, life in Kalavasos fell into decay, and the railway workers were left without work. Sightseeing of the area is a locomotive and three trolleys, frozen on the abandoned railroad track.
Not only Kalavasos neighborhood, but the village itself is worthy of your attention. In the village of Kalavasos with 1200 residents - four taverns and two traditional coffee shops, clinic, shops and banks. While other Cypriot villages have long lost their identity, and their young people have left for the cities, instead of the old Cypriot houses rose concrete type "high-rise" Kalavasos stayed true to his style and taste life. Therefore, visitors to the island here can feel like a particularly enjoy the charms of a deep local tradition, to learn something unusual and unprecedented.
For a decade now the Cyprus Cypriot company, known in the country, is engaged in the restoration of traditional houses in Kalavasos and in Tohni, a nearby village, trying to preserve the traditional color and style. The interior of the restored house combines traditional style with modern conveniences - especially in the kitchen and in the bathrooms. Such villages now receive all the support of the Cyprus Tourism Organization as part of the popular agro-tourism development program that covered two-thirds of the island's villages and prompted the active restoration of traditional buildings. Typical, with the purpose of agritourism renovated premises, consists of one or two bedrooms or simply a studio, but the total area of the house with different auxiliary premises, verandas, etc. can accommodate up to thirty people and is an indispensable place in the event of celebrations and banquets. All the architectural design of the house guarantees the comfortable stay of a large number of guests or simply - quiet family rest.
Premises, united by a common wall, have their own balcony or veranda overlooking the patio, tangerine grove or vineyard. Comfort and modern amenities combined with traditional furniture and design will make your stay and vacation pleasant and comfortable. All houses have central heating and have a fireplace. The bedrooms certainly put air conditioning. Pictures with the local landscape and decorative glass products - is the most common and common attributes of traditional design in the village. They really are cozy and acquaints visitors with the tradition.
Agrotourism in Cyprus attracts a lot of tourists from Germany, Austria and Great Britain, who have come to love this kind of recreation and have repeatedly visited Cyprus for this purpose. Most places in the villages are ordered directly, although this can be done through any travel agent. Orders directly indicate the popularity of this type of tourism and the true interest in it - people learn from each other about this or that place, a particular village, the level of services and just call to order. 80 percent of foreign visitors who have visited the Cypriot villages are returning for the second and third time, and approximately 40 percent of Cypriots re-book a place to their liking. All this leaves hope for a good future for agro-tourism.
Travel agencies usually sell a package that includes the cost of airfare and stay in one of the houses of rural tourism. Order of transport to place the tourist can take care of myself, getting a travel agency all necessary information. Often prices agrotourism when ordering from abroad include the rental car.
Despite the fact that the villages of rural tourism are usually located a few kilometers from the motorway, the access to the mountains and to the coast does not create difficulties.
In the stables of the village Kalavasos has qualified riding instructor. Soon, tourists will be able to travel around the island in the vans.
Near the village (only ten minutes by car), the beach stretches "Governor" with the popular tavern among locals and white, clean sand. And a few kilometers - the village of Zygi, where, on giving, on the shore of Cyprus stepped Saint Helena. Now the village is famous for its skillful fish taverns.
So, if someone is really interested in agrotourism, can and should apply to the Cyprus Tourism Organization, which has a branch in almost every town or village, and information about it - in every travel agency.