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Nicosia

Nicosia is certainly worth a stroll in the old part of town, within the ancient Venetian walls, built the original star. In the city center - pedestrian area of ​​narrow streets, and here are the ancient historical and architectural monuments.

  • Famagustskie gates - Part of the fortifications. In the center there is a dome wall, through which the light of the sun, and on the sides can be considered "closed house" - with virtually no windows on the outside, but bright and cozy courtyard. It is an echo of the era when the mass stealing of children and women, parents and hid them from view.
  • Cyprus Museum - The first and largest on the island, and here the history of Cyprus from the Neolithic. The halls are a lot of archaeological finds, there are various expositions of art. All items found on the island, and the collection is completely unique. You can also visit the museum of Byzantine icons, the museum will be interesting handicrafts.
  • Laiki Eaton - The most famous quarter of Nicosia (Cyprus), its name translates as "The neighbor's quarter." This restored a picturesque corner of the city in the traditional architectural style. At the small cozy streets are located coffee shops, shops, souvenir shops.

Women will surely love the Cypriot museum of jewelry, and most men should definitely look to the railway museum. Many churches and temples that have survived from ancient times, attracting all indifferent to the beauty and splendor.

It is believed that Nicosia - this is one of the most ancient cities in the world, even in 7 century BC there were already settlements. There will definitely be interesting to tourists: someone wants to join the amazing cultures that were repeatedly mixed, someone will appreciate the beauty of Cyprus wine and gourmet dishes Balkan, Turkish and Greek cooking, and someone will love the luxurious spa and ancient Byzantine baths. Here seeks to many tourists for a variety of experiences.

Today Nicosia (Cyprus) is divided into two parts, it is both the capital of the Republic of Cyprus, and the administrative center of Seren Cyprus where Turks live. Also in town is the border checkpoint. Tourists and locals with EU passports can freely pass through the border. Although this government center, shopping here is well developed industry.

Be sure to take a stroll in the center of town on the old market just to enjoy the atmosphere of Mediterranean trade, where rampaging paint, fresh smells, sold enchanting spices.

Near the market located hotel "Shed", try to get on its roof, where you can enjoy views of the city and look at the difference between the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus.

Book a tour to Nicosia, and recreation will bring you a memorable stay in Cyprus.

Attractions Nicosia

The main historical and architectural monuments are located in Nicosia old town within the Venetian walls. The narrow streets of the old houses form a pedestrian area, it focused shops, restaurants and coffee shops.

Venetian Walls

These fortifications were built at the end of the era of Venetian rule, the period of 1567 1570 city by architect Giulio Savorgnan. Ramparts lined with stone, 11 bastions were to facilitate the protection of the city walls with a total length of almost 5km. To pass the city built three gates Famagustskie, Paphos and Kyrenia. However, the grand work of builders were in vain. In 1570 was assault on the city from the Turks broke Bastion Constanta (Constanza) - where the mosque is located now Bayraktar (Bayraktar Mosque), and the fall of Nicosia. Strengthen themselves, known as the Venetian, were not injured. Still remain as Famagusta Gate. Currently, the fortifications built thoroughfares to traffic.

An iconic symbol of the capital Nicosia are undoubtedly the Venetian walls (Venetian Walls). These walls and lies beneath the moat surrounding the old part of the city and create a unique image of the capital of Cyprus.

The first walls around Nicosia were built by the Franks in the XIV century and covered a much larger area. When the Venetians occupied Cyprus, they decided to demolish the Frankish constructions, because they are outdated and do not provide reliable protection against new types of weapons, such as artillery. And the size of the old walls were too big, that they would be able to control a small army of Venetians. It bothers them, and too close to the wall of mountains to the east and south-east of the city.

Venetian Walls were erected at the end of the era of Venetian rule, the period of 1567 1570 city by architect Giulio Savorgnan. The circle of walls was about 3 km. On the entire length of the wall it was 11 towers and fortified gates: Famagustskie, Paphos and Kyrenia. Ramparts lined with stone, 11 bastions were to facilitate the protection of the city walls with a total length of almost 5 km. Protect the city is so impressive buildings failed: shortly after the completion of the 1570 arrived in the Turkish army successfully stormed the impregnable, seemingly wall. Assault on the city from the Turks broke Bastion Constanta (Constanza) - where the mosque is located now Bairaktar (Bayraktar Mosque), and the fall of Nicosia. Strengthen themselves, known as the Venetian, were not injured. Still remain as Famagusta Gate.

Today, partially destroyed the fortification in the old city of Nicosia still makes a strong impression. A former fortress ditches are located parks with sculptures, parking and open-air market.

Famagusta Gate

One of the three passes through the Venetian fortifications, known as Porto Giuliano. Out of the gate started their way, those who went to Famagusta and Larnaca. The restoration project was awarded the gate international prize "Europa Nostra". Currently, indoor gates regularly hosts exhibitions and musical evenings.

Venetian walls encircling the old city have a circumference of 4,5 km. Defensive shaft is surrounded by a wide moat, which are the heart-shaped bastions. In Nicosia the three medieval fortress gate (to the north, south and east) were thrown over the moat bridge. Famagusta Gate (Famagusta Gate) -one of three passes through the Venetian fortifications, known as Porto Giuliano. Out of the gate started their way, those who went to Famagusta and Larnaca.

Famagustskie gates were the most fortified part of the Venetian city wall. In the center of 35-meter diameter dome roof is 11 m, transmits light, and in the side rooms exhibitions and conferences. You can get acquainted with the legacy of the Ottoman era - the so-called "closed houses". It is an echo of the violence and cruelty of time when the abduction of girls and children were commonplace. In order to protect their children from the hands of evildoers, caring parents began to build the house-fortress with virtually "blind" facade, but cozy courtyard and a flowery garden.

The gate was restored. The restoration project was awarded the gate international prize «Europa Nostra». Currently, indoor gates regularly hosts exhibitions and musical evenings - are now working here Nicosia Municipal Cultural Centre "Ammohostu Pili" ("Famagusta Gate").

It was also renovated one of the most characteristic of the old quarters of Nicosia, which is adjacent to Famagustskim goal.

Address: Leoforos Athinas (at Bastion Caraffa). Tel. 43-08-77.
Hours of operationMonday - Friday from 10: 00 do13: 00, with 16: 00 to 19: 00, in the summer - with 17: 00 to 20: 00.
Admission is free.

Municipal park

Park stretches a green semicircle on the outside of the Venetian fortifications, where once was the moat. Green islands in the city center - a pleasant place to stroll.

Cyprus Museum

The largest archaeological museum on the island. Exhibit halls 14 give the most complete picture of the history of Cyprus since the Neolithic era. The museum includes exhibition galleries, open to the public treasury, storerooms, a chemical laboratory, library and photo archives. Built in 1908 1935 In the city began the reorganization of underground spaces, which is still ongoing. There is a souvenir and book shops, cafes.

The main museum and the capital and throughout the country, is considered the Cyprus Museum, the exhibition which provide the most complete picture of the history of Cyprus. Cyprus Museum - the first museum on the island. As well as in the Asian, African, American and Australian regions, the first museum in Cyprus is the result of European colonial expansion (from 1878 1960 for years. Cyprus was a British colony).

Cyprus Museum was established with private funds (subscription), and about 1888, the first collection of antiquities housed in a building set aside for the museum on Victoria Street in old Nicosia. In 1899 was J. Murray and M. Onefalsh Richter (the first scientists who have made significant contributions to the development of Cypriot archeology) published the first catalog of the Cyprus Museum. In 1908, construction began on the new building of the Cyprus Museum, dedicated to the memory of Queen Victoria. Works were completed in the city 1912 and the museum moved to a new building, which is to this day. In 1924 was was appointed the first curator of the Museum. This dates back to the time and the creation of the Cyprus Museum. Cyprus Museum, as well as other museums in Cyprus is administered by the Department of Antiquities, which is a special department of the Ministry of Transport and Public Construction of Cyprus.

Today, the museum consists of 14 exhibition galleries (or exhibition halls), open to the public treasury, storerooms, a chemical laboratory, photo archives (scientific publications of the Department of Antiquities of all necessary materials are photographed and sketched) and libraries. In the workshops and laboratories of the Cyprus Museum is concentrated, purified and preserved much of the material of archaeological excavations. Library of the Department of Antiquities, which is located in the same architectural complex is about 10 thousand volumes, attracting many both Cypriot and foreign scientists.

All archaeological material in the Museum, was found on the island and therefore is unique to the study of culture and art of ancient Cyprus. Assigning different findings determined the structure and arrangement of the exhibits in the museum. It's not just the Archaeological Museum, and Museum of Art. In its halls are exhibited the best examples of Cypriot art, but do not remain without attention and subjects related to everyday life and religion, even if their aesthetic value is minimal.

Significant place in the premises of the museum covers the prehistoric period: Neolithic and Chalcolithic represented in all phases of tools, utensils and small items that I occupy room. The Early Bronze Age is devoted to Room II with a collection of religious objects, a variety of dishes, the first bronze tools. The hall III presents a panorama of the Cypriot ceramics, starting from srednebronzovogo period up to the Roman era. His wealth and originality you will impress IV Hall - Hall terra cotta (clay idols of Agia Irini), in which findings are presented almost in the form in which they were found around the sacrificial altar. In Room V demonstrated a sculpture of Archaic and Hellenistic periods in the VI Hall - the sculpture of the Roman period. In the large hall VIIA presents a variety of exhibitions: the complete series of bronze tools and small parts of the Early Bronze Age to the Roman era, stone seals and coins, gold coins, glass and alabaster. It stands out in the Cyprus Museum Hall VIIB. In this room are reconstructed the burial of all periods. In the VIII Hall exhibited marble sculptures of the Roman era. In Room IX is set figurines of clay and steatite. In Room XVIII exhibits clay tablets with Cypriot-Minoan script, the stele with the Cypriot syllabic writing and alphabetical writing. Room XIX exhibits gravestones. In the halls of the XX and XXI you are familiar with the findings of Salamis, Engomi and Kition.

Nicosia City Museum Levendion

The exposition in the original form tells the history of the city. The museum was awarded the international prize "The Best European Museum of 1991." Located in the quarter Laiki Gitonia in a house built in the last century. There is a gift shop.

Byzantine Museum and Art Gallery

The museum contains one of the finest collections of Byzantine icons, since 8-9 in., And visitors can trace the development of iconography for a millennium. Here fragments of frescoes in 14., Altar 17-18 c. Carved "royal doors" with iconography. Art Gallery is located on the top floor. Paintings by European artists from the period 16v. according to 19., mainly on religious themes. There are big names, but the authorship of the great, alas, has not been confirmed.

Cultural Centre of the Archbishop Makarios III Foundation in Nicosia, consisting of the Byzantine Museum, the Art Gallery and the Library was opened in 1982 year. In the gallery on the first floor are paintings, old maps, drawings and other artifacts that have great historical value; on the second floor - the works of European artists inspired by the Greek Revolution of 1821 Byzantine Museum has a collection consisting of 150 portable Byzantine icons gathered in churches and monasteries of Cyprus. Icons were written in the period from VIII to XVIII centuries. This collection allows us to trace the development of the Cypriot icons and the difference in styles that have come to replace one another. On the scale of the exposition, as well as cultural and historical value of icons, Byzantine Museum of Nicosia is considered one of the best museums in the world.

Byzantine Museum has two exhibition halls. In the first room you can see fragments of iconography and decoration of the altar of the church, which has a characteristic arched shape, repetition in the wood-based products. These works are transferred from the churches of Nicosia, Paphos, Pedoulas, Arkapasa and other towns and villages of Cyprus.

Among the oldest icons is worth noting the small (about 25h18 cm) icon "Virgin and Child" (Panagia Vrefokratusa), dating back to VIII-IX centuries. Up to now reached only the face of Our Lady, made in typical planar manner with a dark contour, emphasizing geometric folds purple himation (cloak) and big eyes image anxiously peering into space. Mosaic cracelures preserved and significant darkening of the paint layer does not hide from us expressiveness of the image.

Many of the images are also charred fragments, especially at the corners. This is due to the fact that a number of future exhibits was taken from the occupied north of Cyprus, and because they show signs of barbarian destruction.

At the back of the room to the right place at the altar erected "apse". Here, under the arches of trehparusnymi "apse", exhibited excellent work carved gilt altar (XVII-XVIII cc.), And the throne of the Archbishop (kon.XVIII - nach.XIX cc.). The frescoes decorating the vaults belong to the XIV century and were transferred (duplicated) from the church of St. Nicholas in Kakopetria (Church of St. Nicholas under the double roof). It is a scene of the Assumption of the Virgin, Christ Appearing to the Apostles and the descent of the Holy Spirit.

The interiors of the second room are more modern character, it provides room for the educational programs of the Foundation. In this room you will find a semi-circular windows with exhibits from the collection of the Archbishop's Palace Reliquary - ceremonial vestments of the Archbishop Makarios III, miter and chalices XVII-XIX centuries., Rare editions of the Gospels in the luxurious salaries and silver crosses, tops. Right at the entrance, to the left, begins a series of wooden stands, tabletops in which the plates are mounted with fragments of frescoes (late. XV cent.) Church of Christ in Antifonitisa Kalogrea having a special story. In 1974 was the invasion of the Turks in northern Cyprus, these frescoes were chipped and transported by Turkish antiquities dealers in Europe. And only recently, in 1997 year, with the help of German police frescoes were collected and returned to Cyprus.

The room contains 25 36 scenes from the museum's collection of Byzantine art: the image of Jesus Christ, the Virgin and the upcoming, Byzantine emperors and saints. Rich polychrome colors attract your attention to the early Byzantine mosaics V-VI centuries., Transferred from the occupied north (the church of Panagia tis Kanarnas in Litrankomi) and carefully placed under the glass. These mosaics with images of Jesus Christ and the apostles (early canon, Jesus appears as a fragile beardless youth with a golden halo around his head) have remarkably "modern" and even the expressive mood. The nature of these mosaics near other works of late antiquity, also wearing a distinct portrait, namely "Fayum portrait" - so called in Egypt era Ptolemidov funerary portraits, imposed on the face of the dead, tightly diapered like mummies. It was a wooden tablet with a waxy layer, which was applied art, with almost photographic precision passing features.

Museum and gallery are open from Monday to Friday to 9.00 16.30 (these days Gallery is closed for a break up with 13.00 14.00), on Saturday, with up to 9.00 13.00.

Cultural Center is located in the Palace of the Archbishop (Plateia Archiepiskopou Kiprianou).

Ethnographic Museum of Cyprus

In December 1950, in Nicosia, on the initiative and active support of the Society of Cypriot researchers (leading its activities with 1937 years), which was headed by a prominent painter Adamantios Diamantis Cyprus (b. In the city of 1900), it opened the Museum of Folk Art (now it is the name of the Ethnographic Museum of Cyprus). The museum is located at the residence of the Archbishop of Cyprus, a few meters from the Cathedral of St. John, the former residence of the Archbishop.

In 1961 year for the Cypriot archbishop it built a new residence, and thanks to the efforts and the efforts of the Society of Cypriot Explorers former building of the Archdiocese was transferred to him. Since then, the Museum of Folk Art of Cyprus occupies the entire first floor of a former archbishop's residence, in the halls of which housed his collection and collection. However, these premises halls called pretty hard, as this small cell of the former monastery of the XV century, which belonged to the Benedictine Order.

But the history of the museum began even earlier, in 1931 year, when a group of participants in the movement for the revival of folk art put forward the idea to create a collection of samples of art Cypriots. But the political situation of the time (up to 1960 years Cyprus was a British colony) are not allowed to put this idea into practice. Cypriots have always opposed British rule and after their performances are usually followed by violent repression.

However, after five years, the organization of the museum once again became widely discussed, and the beginning of the museum was laid. And the beginning it was difficult. Firstly, enthusiasts had no experience as Cyprus then there was virtually no museum professionals, especially in the field of ethnography and folklore. In addition, the English circles these aspirations were seen as hostile and dangerous. But members of the Society had the enthusiasm, perseverance and courage in order to fully complete the begun business. Already in 1948 year they managed to get a small room on the first floor of the residence of the Archbishop of Cyprus, where they placed first 457 exhibits. It was a national clothing, wood sculpture, jewelry and some other things. They collected the organizers of the Museum, as well as a gift sent people from different areas of the island.

During the first ten years of existence, the Museum of Folk Art, the British authorities closed it three times under all sorts of pretexts. Such repression by the authorities scared off many visitors, and the existence of the Museum in Nicosia, and especially outside the few people knew.

Most of the premises occupied by the museum's collection, and the rest are located in the working rooms Society for the Study of Cyprus (under whose patronage and is a museum) and the research institute, whose staff do a great job of studying and promoting Cypriot folk art.

Customers are beginning to get acquainted with the exhibits of the Museum, even without going in its facilities. On a small platform in front of the museum, under a canopy, exposed a huge jar of red clay and wooden press to produce olive oil.

In 12 the museum is widely samples of arts and crafts XVIII and XIX centuries, as well as traditional products Cypriot artists performed in the middle of the XX century. The collection includes a variety of wooden handicrafts, painted pottery, gold and silver jewelry, fabrics and lace, which in ancient times was famous island.

In the first room of the museum collection of looms, in which all four exhibits, but each of them designed for a specific purpose. On one machine woven material for sewing only men's clothing, the other has been adapted for the production of fabrics with patterns, and the third was used for the manufacture of fabrics, of which the later sewn bags ...

And in the following halls are exposed samples of a wide variety of fabrics and products made of them. Here it is, and flax, and cotton and wool, and silk. Visitors and tourists primarily affects a variety of linen fabrics, which are collected from all over the island. This diversity is dominated by yellow, light green, dark blue, gray and red - a traditional national dress for the residents of Cyprus.

The very traditional clothes at the Museum occupies a special place because the people of Cyprus since ancient times it paid very much attention. Cypriots themselves say that their clothes, primarily in its color, read their character and temperament.

Museum organizers gave two small cells to recreate the interior of the house Cypriots last century. Among the household items that gave a special touch housing, in every Cypriot house was two wooden closet (they were placed in opposite corners), hinged wooden shelves for dishes (decorative and daily use), chests for clothes. All wood carved products, and some even painted in soft colors. The interior of the museum houses the Cyprus Visitors first meet with copper utensils. In general, all of these household items can still be seen in the homes of the poor Cypriots.

The collection of wooden handicrafts can be seen beds, wardrobes, cupboards, spoons, salt shakers, paper knives. Many of the items are decorated with the finest thread in the form of geometric patterns, color, stylized figures of animals, birds and humans. Special charm combined with a thread creates a painting with bright colors: red, blue and green. The tradition of such ornaments dates back to the Byzantine era.

Unusually original and interesting presented at the Museum of silver and gold. The largest production center of Nicosia was where his art is particularly famous silversmiths. Gold items have less demand, because they were only available to very rich people.

In the Museum there are works by contemporary Cypriot craftsmen, but the execution is necessarily in the traditional manner. In the gift shop you can buy traditional Cypriot products.

Huskies Getoniya

It means "neighbor quarter." The area of ​​the old city, which was renovated with love and diligence. House of traditional architecture, limestone, decorated with balconies and shutters are protected, forming narrow streets with craft shops and souvenir shops, with lots of coffee shops and taverns. Ideally suited for hiking. Located within the Venetian walls, not far from the area Plateia Elefterias, opposite the bastion D'Avila.

District Laiki Guyton, which translated means "the neighbor quarter," is perhaps the best known and most picturesque neighborhoods in the city of Nicosia. This renovated old town district. All the buildings here (even a relatively new) recently rebuilt in the style of 20-ies. Souvenir shops, craftsmen's workshops, taverns and restaurants are conveniently located on the twisty, winding streets, radiating charm and preserving amazing charming originality. House of traditional architecture, limestone, decorated with balconies and shutters are protected, forming narrow streets with craft shops and souvenir shops, with lots of coffee shops and taverns.

"Laiki Guyton" - a pedestrian part of the city, which was reconstructed and revived the atmosphere of the old city. The two main streets of old Nicosia - Didre and Anasagoru - still remain the most commercial streets of the city in the pedestrian zone.

A walk through the old town - it's like stepping back in time. District Laiki Guyton is ideally suited for hiking.

Located within the Venetian walls, not far from the area Plateia Elefterias, opposite the bastion D'Avila.

Ledra Street

Pedestrian street, limiting Laiki Gitonia west. Venetian fortifications stretching from the city center. One of the main shopping streets, although not always there reigned such serenity. The British called it "a mile of Death" because during the struggle for independence here Cypriots were killed many British soldiers. Walk this street for its entire length, you can not - it is closer to the center is blocked by an army post. During fasting should be a narrow buffer zone beyond which the position of the Turkish army. Today there are checkpoint, through which you can get to the occupied territories.

Ledra Street (Lidras Street) in Nicosia - pedestrian street, limiting Laiki Gitonia west. The street stretches from the Venetian fortifications to the city center.

Ledra - one of the main shopping streets, although not always there reigned such serenity. The British called it "a mile of Death" because during the struggle for independence Cypriots (1955-1959 years.) Here were killed many British soldiers. Walk this street for its entire length, you can not - it is closer to the center is blocked by an army post. During fasting should be a narrow buffer zone and further the position of the Turkish army, which you can look through special openings in the fence.

Museum of the liberation struggle 1955-1959 years

Museum of National Struggle 1955-1959 years. That is located in Nicosia, near the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist, tells about the events that took place in Cyprus in 50-ies of XX century. In the years of the struggle for the independence of Cyprus from the UK.

The history of the struggle for the independence of Cyprus dates back to the plebiscite 1950 years (plebiscite - "the decision of the people" (Lat.), The popular vote for the solution of critical, public affairs), on which the people of Cyprus unconditionally called for Enosis - union with Greece. For centuries, the idea of ​​union with Greece troubled hearts of Greek Cypriots, because the historical roots of unity with Greece, Cyprus obvious. This is evidenced by the customs, culture, lifestyle, language of the people.

In the opening room of the museum next to the historical information there are several exhibits, confirming the identity of many aspects of the Cyprus and Greek cultures. For example, an iron sword in 7. BC, or antique bas-relief depicting warriors. Even the expert will not be easy to answer the question with Greece or Cyprus these unique finds. A three coins dating back to 5. BC. and cast in the reign of King Evagoras I, designed to clearly explain the reasons for the visitor desire for Enosis - in the reign of this king of united Cyprus was particularly close with Greece.

In the first room of the museum, you immerse yourself in the atmosphere of the events that occurred after the plebiscite. Secretary for Foreign Affairs Hopkinson made in the British Parliament with a statement saying that: "The right of self-determination for Cyprus will never be recognized." This is "never" was the last straw and the people. Both left and right-wing parties called on the people of Cyprus for a general strike. Limassol, Larnaca and Nicosia began protests that were brutally suppressed. On the walls of the room black and white photographs, images which correspond to the real size, so you will certainly feel like in the streets of the Cypriot cities, among the people, carrying Greek flags and chanting: "Freedom! Independence! Enosis! " Chronicle 1955 years in I room revives the language of posters, leaflets, unique photographs.

One section of the museum is devoted to the activities of Archbishop Makarios III - the spiritual leader of the insurgent people, and his associates. Several times the leader of the Cypriot nation went to the US, where addressed to the United Nations, brought to the attention of the members of the United Nations information on the situation in Cyprus and the aspirations of its people. But, alas, to no avail. Even after the start of the armed struggle in October 1955, he met with John Harding, head of the British administration in Cyprus. Steadily Archbishop demanded recognition of the right of its people to self-determination. Aware of the immense authority of the Archbishop in Cyprus and among the international community, Harding yet decided on the arrest of the head of the oldest Christian church of the Archbishop Makarios III, together with Bishop Cyprian Kirineyskim and others. In March 1956, they were exiled to an island Seyshellskoy ridge. A special section of the exhibition demonstrates the injunction, which was filed arrested. It is reported that British authorities will do everything possible to stay the archbishop and his associates in the Seychelles "was pleasant and comfortable." Such hypocrisy is indignation, even decades later. On display are personal belongings of the Archbishop and General Grivas, a lot of pictures of expressive portraits. Orthodox man, going into the hall of the museum, will be touched by seeing the sacred vessels for communion, which the archbishop took with him into exile. Exposure make particularly distinctive sculptures. Extremely realistic and is impressive group of sculptures depicting the protesters, among them very young fighters, the police dispersed the demonstration. In the same room you will see unique photographs, which show how British soldiers arrested children pretest school bags, searched the priests.

In the center of the next room is recreated rock cave. It is possible to look and see where the guerrilla hideout. Guerrillas in the mountain forests often engage in a part of the regular British army. Here is a partisan weapon: improvised mines, grenades, pistols, machine guns, and even made out of available tools (various water pipes). Some grenades and mines Cypriots cast yourself hiking smelter exposed. There is an exposition dedicated to the hero of the liberation movement Gregory Afksendiu. Being surrounded by enemies, a patriot fought and did not give up, even wounded. March 3 1957, he was burned alive by the British in the cave, from which he conducted many hours of battle. The feat of the hero immortalized in maherasskih forests where mountain Kioni stands opposite the monument "Eagle Machaira." A small exhibit dedicated to the hero, and is open at the monastery of Our Lady of Maheriotissy where monks repeatedly hid him from prosecution by the British authorities.

The museum exposition is completed gallery of memory: one hundred and twenty pictures of heroes and about inextinguishable candle is lit each. 1 April 1960, Cyprus became independent. The museum is located in Nicosia, near the Cathedral of St. John the Divine. Entrance to the museum is free. For information call: 22-305878.

Cathedral of St.. John

The cathedral was built in 1662 on the site of a Benedictine monastery. St. John was called the beloved disciple of Christ. The cathedral is famous for its beautiful frescoes in 18., Reflecting the time of discovery of the relics of St. Barnabas, who was the founder of an independent Church of Cyprus.

In the historical center of Nicosia, in the narrow streets enclosed in a massive ring of the Venetian walls, stands the Orthodox Cathedral of Saint John (Agios Ionnis). It is the headquarters of the Greek Orthodox Archbishop of Cyprus. This is one of the most revered church on the island - the official service, conducted by Archbishop come first political face of the country.

Cathedral of St. John was elevated to archbishop Nikiforos 1962 year on the site of the Benedictine Abbey of St. John the Divine. St. John called the beloved disciple of Christ. The cathedral is famous for its beautiful frescoes in 18., Reflecting the time of discovery of the relics of St. Barnabas, who was the founder of an independent Cyprus tserkvi.V 1720, Metropolitan Sylvester subjected church renovation and turned to his residence, but after that it got the status of a cathedral.

Compared with the great cathedrals of Europe, this church is small in size and conformation. But its interior is simply magnificent. Built in the Gothic style with arched vaults, but without the dome, inside the cathedral its long walls become an ideal place for murals. They were created in 1736-1756 GG, in the years of the reign of Archbishop Filoteosa. Topics frescoes were largely inspired by the biblical story, and on the south wall paints a picture of "The discovery of the tomb of St. Barnabas at Salamis."

Striking splendor and carved iconostasis, covered with gold leaf. 4 large icons in it written by John Cornaro in 1795 and 1797 years. Cathedral of St. John - the only church in Nicosia, preserved in full all its internal painting.

Address: Plateia Archiepiskopou Kiprianou (in the Palace of the Archbishop).
The cathedral is open for visits from Monday to Friday from 9.00 12.00 and up to 14.00 16.00. On Saturdays - with up to 9.00 12.00.

House Dragoman Hadigeorgakis Kornesios

Hadzhigeorgakis Kornesios at the turn of 18-19 century. was the intermediary between the Greek Cypriots and the Turkish authorities, and one of his duties was to collect taxes in favor of the Ottoman Empire.

Built Kornesios house was the most luxurious and beautiful in Nicosia. In 1809g. Turks Kornesios accused of fraud and executed, but the house was for the relatives. In 1979, he was bequeathed to the city. Furnishing the house is preserved. Particularly impressive Divan room. In addition to furniture, exhibited icons, ceramics, coins of the period, kitchen utensils. In the far left corner of the yard - a Turkish bath, used until now.

The Cyprus Postal Museum

Stamps are often called the country's business cards. With these tiny colored miniatures pasted on e-mail correspondence, it has the unique opportunity to learn about the history and culture of the countries located in the most remote corners of the globe.

Researchers studying the history of postal services in Cyprus, found that between the years 1353 1845 on all mail sent from the island mainly Venetian ships. From this rather long period of time it has survived only a small number of letters, most of them held together by personal seal of the sender. Between 1845 - 1871 years in Larnaca, which then housed the foreign consulates and embassies acted only on the island of the Austrian post office, and from year 1871 1878 for added another, but in Nicosia. There functioned Turkish liaison office, leaving fifteen slaked brands labeled "KIBRIS".

The appearance of an island in the British 1878 year was marked by the introduction into use of new printing plates. The first stamp of the island of Cyprus released 1880 year - from now on you can calculate the philatelic history of Cyprus.

At first, the British used the brand, which was depicted a close-up profile of Queen Victoria. They are in bold black, after manufacturing, was applied to the inscription "CYPRUS". (Today these brands are of great rarity and value for philatelists from different countries.) More recently replaced the mark

m came entirely new postal marks which were published again in the UK, but especially for Cyprus. This lasted until the year 1960 when the island gained independence. Since that time, all the inscriptions on stamps of Cyprus began to appear in three languages: Greek, Turkish and English.

Certain communications and postal activities existed between Russia and Cyprus. In order to further strengthen the existing community between almost the Republic of Cyprus and the Russian Federation, it was decided to issue a total 1996 year series of stamps Cyprus and Russia. The theme for the creative union served the same for both countries The Christian Orthodox religion. The series consisted of four brands: the image of the icon of Our Lady of Iberia, Stavrovouni Monastery, icon of St. Nicholas Gate and the Resurrection (Iberian Gate).

Cyprus Postal Museum and philately is located in Nicosia and is located on the first floor of an old two-storey mansion. This is quite a small museum founded in 1981 year. His exhibition presents a great many diverse material on the development of e-mail message to the Venetian period in Cyprus, from the XV century. The museum's collections are replenished with new models every year. In the halls of the museum in chronological order placed samples of stamps and philatelic material that shows the history of Cyprus.

In the first room of the museum presented material relating to the period of British rule in Cyprus. You can see a collection of old Cypriot stamps with the portrait of Queen Victoria of England, they created the word "Cyprus". There also exists a series of the first Cypriot stamps with the image of 1928 Historic Places and dates relating to different periods of the history of Cyprus.

Another room of the museum presents an exhibition of envelopes and stamps, which were released after the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Cyprus. Here you can also see and modern brand with a display of recent significant events of the island. Through collections of stamps of various albums can be traced very different events that happened on the island. The museum has a superb collection of stamps featuring famous figures of history and culture of Cyprus, as you can see the mark printed with the sights and monuments of the island.

In the halls of the museum and sample letters, old envelopes, a lot of old newspapers, journals and unique cards, you can consider the postal bags, sealed with wax, postal scales, philatelic books and magazines of different years.

Visiting Cyprus Postal Museum and Philatelic, you get a lot of pleasure from viewing its exhibits and learn a lot about this mysterious island of Cyprus.

AddressNicosia, Street St. Sava, 3 B (Agiou Savva 3b Street).
Phone: + 22 304 711, 22 760 522.

The Cyprus Railway Museum

Although Cyprus has no railroads, railway museum there. The fact that in 1951-52 years. Cypriot railway was closed due to low return on investment. And it appeared in the days of colonial rule of Cyprus from the UK - in the year 1905 and 39 numbered stations and stops. It connected with Nicosia and Famagusta Morphou. With 1905-1951 till year 115-kilometer rail were transported 7 348 643 passenger. But the main thrust of the colonial authorities was not on the transport of people and Mail, and delivery to the capital of the Famagusta of goods arriving by sea, so the economic growth of the country's railroad played an important role.

To find and collect all the exhibits, it took a year of work. The museum consists of six rooms: three large and three small. All rooms are equipped with air conditioning system, so that in a comfortable environment, you will be able to see the exhibits. In addition, the museum can be found 25-DVD-minute film about the history of the establishment and operation of the Cyprus government's railway.

In the first (big) room, you'll see two dummy Cypriot conductors in winter uniform.

In addition, the exhibition includes photographs of the first half of the XX century, as well as drawings of the stations, the station clock and the bell, which announced departure of the last train 31 1951 year in December. In the inner courtyard of the museum exhibited a large wagon Cypriot government's railway.

In the courtyard of the museum will draw your attention to an elegant bright red locomotive and blue-black Trolley put to eternal "parking" in the yard of the museum. The museum has more interactivity: you can climb into the car and sit in the place of the driver.

By the way, the Ministry of Communications and Works of Cyprus has announced an international tender for a feasibility study for the establishment of the railway transportation system that will link together the capital -Nikosiyu - and the largest coastal cities of the country: Limassol and Larnaca. By April 2011, the winning company will have to present their project, which allows to answer the question whether and to what extent feasible from a technical and economic point of view the construction of the railway on the island.

To finance the preparation of the project will be the government of the Republic of Cyprus and the Foundation for the trans-European transport system of the EU on an equal footing. Its cost is estimated at 286 thousand euros. So, it is quite possible that the museum still replenished with new items for future exposure.

Museum Hours: weekdays from 10.00 13.00 and up to 16.00 18.00. Saturday - up to 10.00 14.00. Day off - Sunday. Location: Nicosia, st. Vyronos, 32 (the museum is located near the bookstore Old Bridge) .Tel .: 22-718605. If you are thinking of the museum on Saturday, it is best to call in advance.

Cyprus Museum Treasures

Here you can find jewelry, religious items, dishes of silver produced at the end of 19 - in the early 20.

Cyprus Museum of jewelry (Cyprus Jewellers Museum) is located in the capital of Cyprus - Nicosia, in the quarter Gitonia huskies. There are exhibited made in national style jewelry, made in the late XIX - early XX centuries., Religious items, silver utensils, old instruments.

Address: 7-9 Praxippou (in the quarter Laiki Gitonia).
Phone.: 45-72-78.
Hours of operationFrom Monday to Friday to 10.00 16.00.
Admission is free.

Church Chrysaliniotissa

The oldest Byzantine church in Nicosia, built in 1450 by order of Helena Palaeologus, the wife of one of the members of the genus Lusignan. A beautiful collection of Byzantine icons. The church is located a few hundred meters to the north of Famagusta Gate.

Omeriye Mosque

The mosque was built on the site of a ruined Augustinian church on the orders of Mustafa Pasha, who headed in 1570, troops of the Ottoman Empire invaded Cyprus. Mustafa Pasha thought that here was buried the prophet Omar, whose name and had a mosque.

Omeriye Mosque in Nicosia was built in 1571, on the site of the Church of St. Mary, which belonged to the Order of St. Augustine. Church destroyed by order of Mustafa Pasha, who headed in 1570, troops of the Ottoman Empire invaded Cyprus. Mustafa Pasha thought that here was buried the prophet Omar, whose name and had a mosque. It was destroyed not only the church but the whole monastery, to which it relates. Of the remaining parts of the Augustinian monastery and built a mosque. This is evidenced by the Gothic portico, badly damaged during the siege of 1570

The square chapel XIV c., The tower which was later turned into a minaret survived several sets of fragments of original construction. It is proved that before in this place were Roman, and then Frankish burial, and presumably, the tomb of the Caliph Omar.

The mosque consists of several rooms, a height greater than two meters. All rooms are in elegant medieval style and decorated with various drawings, telling about these or other events. In the northeastern part of the monument are found the remains of buildings of the late Renaissance period. With regard to the tombstones of monks and abbots who lived in the monastery, they were transported to the fort of Limassol.

From the balconies of the mosque a magnificent view of the whole city, especially in the occupied zone, located on the other side of the demarcation pine.

Address: Plateia Tillirias.
The mosque is open for viewing every day from Monday to Saturday to 10.00 12.30 and 13.30 to 15.30.

Church Tripiotis

The building of Franco-Byzantine style was built in 1695 This church is known for its iconostasis, whose width and silver frame icons distinguish it from others.

Famous for its iconostasis Tripiotis the church in the capital of Cyprus - Nicosia, with the Leventis Museum.

Tripiotis Church in Nicosia was built in 1695 built by order of Archbishop Germanos II. The church was built in an interesting Franco-Byzantine style. In addition to the unusually wide iconostasis, the church is different from other lavish interior. Silver salaries of icons indicate that the early church attended very wealthy people living in Nicosia.

Church Phaneromeni

Built in 1872 was here in the marble mausoleum svostochnoy side of the church, the remains of Cypriot priests executed by the Turks in 1821 on charges of conspiracy.

One of the oldest and most beautiful churches in Cyprus - the church of Faneromeni - located in the heart of old Nicosia, close to the "green line" separating the Cypriot capital.

According to historical sources, the time of its creation 1300 year, when the island was ruled by Frankish kings of Lusignan. Once upon a time this place was a convent dedicated to Panagia Faneromeni. Its inmates were known as skilled seamstress. After all, even from ancient times, the island was known for beautiful embroidery, manufacture of high quality fabrics and gold thread, which embroidered silk clothing. Work monastery of nuns brought great income to allocate substantial funds for charitable purposes.

The name of the monastery, as well as the church, built in 1792 year, associated with the acquisition of miraculous icon of the Virgin. This event occurred during construction. The word "fanerosike" means "was", "Faneromeni" - "phenomenon."

Turks who invaded Cyprus in 1571 year, wanted to turn the monastery into a mosque, but there appointed imams (priests) with some fatal sequence suddenly died. Finally, giving up the idea, superstitious Christian invaders left the monastery alone.

The name of the church and opening Phaneromeni due in the first year 1859 on the island of schools for girls. In those years he held the post of Archbishop Makarios I, which strongly contributed to the creation of schools, allocated for this purpose significant funds from the budget of the Metropolitan Church and charities using the capital of monasteries and churches. Archbishop wrote to living abroad by the Cypriot clergy asking for a donation of money to the needs of all schools in Nicosia. His appeals were heard and soon received substantial sums from a number of monasteries of the Holy Mount Athos, as well as from the Jerusalem Patriarchate Metropolitan Philemon.

In 1872-1873 years. after major construction work takes Phaneromeni church familiar to us appearance. In 1938 year to her parked bell tower, for which specially in England were cast bells.

One of the characteristic features of the church - its interior decoration and especially the fine carving of the iconostasis, dating from year 1659, reproducing scenes from the Old Testament, as well as a wealth of ancient icons and church painting. Decorated the iconostasis the icon of Panagia Faneromeni is being kept in the Byzantine Museum of the Archbishop Makarios III Foundation in Nicosia. The temple is a copy of it, established in 1924, the famous Cypriot artist Adamantisom Diamantis. The icon is placed in the silver-gilt salary made in 1851 year.

Many well-known Cypriot masters worked on the creation of today's appearance of the temple. Holy Table, and Archbishop's throne - the work of the famous woodcarver A. Papadopoulos. Pulpit made M.Taliodorosom and icons depicting the four evangelists painted by A.Diamantisa. Most of the icons placed in a gold-plated and silver-plated salaries, artfully made goldsmiths P.Kolokosom and G.Elefteriadisom. The present decoration of the church - a magnificent wall paintings - a unique work of one of the first professional artists Cypriot Ioannis Kissonergisa who portrayed Christ in the dome of the temple Vsederzhatelya and the four evangelists.

As mentioned above, the icon of the Virgin is in the Byzantine Museum. Over the past ten years under the auspices of the Archbishop of Cyprus bring the original for a few days in the temple for the sacred liturgy in honor of the Virgin. Written in the XIV century icon size on the 118 83 cm was the most valuable treasure of the monastery of Panagia Faneromeni. Renowned Cypriot historian Archimandrite Kyprianos wrote: "In Nicosia there are two miraculous icons: Phaneromeni and Alinёtissa. The oldest of them - Phaneromeni. " Who studied this issue G.Sotiriu believes that the icon refers to the XII century, and in the XVI-XVIII centuries. it was restored. In the frame, framing the face of the Virgin, preserved image of six hymnographers and citizens, praying for rain. Unknown icon painter captures Panagia Phaneromeni holding the infant Christ on a gold background. The right hand of the Virgin Mary points to the Lord. Faces of the Virgin Mary and Christ are given a close-up that allows you to better grasp the stern expression on their faces. These images are of the type icons "Hodegetria" (edict).

Archbishop's Palace

Construction of a three-storey palace in neo-Byzantine style, was completed in 1960 Here is the residence of the supreme spiritual entity of Cyprus - Archbishop. Before the palace is a monument to Archbishop Makarios III, the first president of an independent Cyprus. On the territory of the archbishopric is Cathedral of St. John, the Byzantine Museum, the Museum of Folk Art, Art Gallery.

In the center of Nicosia, at Archbishop Kyprianou Square, it is one of the most popular places in the capital of Cyprus - Archbishop's Palace. Despite its Venetian appearance, it was built recently. Its construction lasted from 1956 1960 of the year. A completed in 1961 year - one year after receipt of the independence of Cyprus.

Built a new palace at the Archbishop Makarios III, whose bronze statue was installed next to the building in 1987 year. Also, the walls of the palace you can see a bust of Archbishop Kyprianou. This religious leader was hanged by the Turks in 1820 year.

The two-storey building of the archbishop's palace in neo-Byzantine style are the offices and residence of the archbishop of the diocese. At the same time it was built by the Byzantine Museum and Library Archdiocese. Nearby is the old archbishop's palace, which now houses a museum of folk art and the museum of the national struggle.

The new palace preserved intact bedroom Archbishop Makarios and his heart is stored in a special container. But they can be seen only in special cases.

During the military coup in 1974, the palace suffered significant damage, but today no trace of the events thanks to a careful restoration, carried out in 80-ies of XX century.

Area attractions Nicosia

Village Dali (the ancient city of Idalion)

Idalion - an ancient city-state, the site of which is now the village of Dali. Studies have discovered the ruins of the ancient city for scientists an opportunity to restore some of the facts of the life that was in full swing here three thousand years ago. As we now know, Idalion not only became the first Cypriot state with a democratic system, but also created his own school of art. City of the past still dominates the minds of historians and romantic soul. Being a legendary, it still retains many secrets. There worshiped Athena and Apollo, and this is where according to legend died young Adonis - beloved of Aphrodite.

In February 2008 in the village of Dali (Nicosia District) opened local museum Idalion - one of the city-kingdoms in ancient times existed on the island. The basis for the creation of the museum were the significant archaeological finds made by the Department of Antiquities and a number of foreign missions in recent years.

Visitors to the museum have the opportunity to get acquainted not only with exhibits found in the XIX-XX centuries, but discovered during the recent expeditions. In addition to the necessary scientific comments and exhibits are accompanied by rich illustrative material.

The museum consists of two halls: the first - the documentary material about the history of the area, excavations, as well as photographic material of the most valuable finds, which are in foreign museums. In the second room contains an inscription indicating the capture of the kingdom of Idalion, part of the archives of city management, tombstones, samples of pottery and household items.

An interesting fact is that the creators of the museum, given the fact that the excavations in the ancient Idalion still underway, the building is constructed in such a way that if it should be found in the future finds, it can be easily moved to another location.

Many artifacts found in the region are now in major museums around the world and are the subject of study and admiration. In the premises of the museum is planned to hold lectures and events. In addition, visitors will be continuously screened a film about the area, and archeological excavations made during their findings. Construction of the museum allows for the development of significant new tourist destination in the interest of Dali and surrounding villages.

Creating local and specialized museums is part of a comprehensive program of the Department of Antiquities, aimed at the development of a number of areas.

The village of Pera Chorio

19 km south of Nicosia. Church of the Holy Apostles in the village of Pera Chorio keeps some beautiful frescoes in 12.

Panagia Chrysospiliotissa

Located near the village of Deftera in 11 km southwest of Nicosia. Dedicated to the "Lady Golden Cave." Catacomb Church structure indicates that it dates from the early Christian period. Every year in August 15 arranged religious festival in the name day of the Virgin Mary.

Church of the Holy Mother of God Golden cave (Panagia Chrysospiliotissa) is located near the village of Deftera in 11 km southwest of Nicosia. According to legend, the villagers once said in the depths of the mysterious cave flickering light. Plucking up courage, they got inside and found a unique two-sided icon of the Virgin, which supposedly was written by the hand of the Apostle Luke.

However, there is another version, associated with its acquisition, from which it follows that once, during a hunt, the Turkish Grand Vizier Kamil Pasha, fell from a cliff and crevice glimpsed the glowing face of the Blessed Virgin. Considering that his miraculous escape, he is obliged icon of the Virgin, Kamil Pasha, gave the Church of Panagia Chrysospiliotissa vast land.

Unfortunately, when and by whom was created the cave monastery, is unknown. It consists of three cut into the rock small rooms, connected by a narrow corridor. Scientists believe that once there was a small working monastery. Most recently, the outer walls of the church strengthened, and it is a long staircase with many steps.

Icon of the Holy Mother of God Golden cave is still kept in the church of St. Nicholas, in the center of the village of Deftera. 15 August each year on the day of the Blessed Virgin Mary religious fairs are held here, and the icon is made in the ancient cave temple.

Tamassos

The village politicians, 20 km southwest of Lefkosia. Tamassos represented the wealthy city-state known in the ancient copper mines in Cyprus his. Excavations have discovered royal tombs and copper workshops associated with the cult of Aphrodite-Astarte.

In 21 km. to the south-west of the capital Nicosia, near the village of politicians, are the ruins of Tamassos - city-states of ancient Cyprus.

Last Tamassos was a major religious and industrial center, is developed copper mines. As the excavation, the development of the settlement reached its peak in the period from the 1 500 500 years before. BC. e., it is expected that the development of copper began around the third millennium BC. e.

Exist in the same time with such well-known city-states, as Idalion, Ledra, Curio, Tamassos has since 2500 BC It was fairly large and significant at the time the industrial center of the Mediterranean. His fame in the ancient world is evidenced by the fact that several references to it can be found in Homer's "Odyssey". The city's name is present in an inscription dating back to 673 BC, where the list of ten of Cypriot city-states, to pay tribute to the Assyrians. At the end of IV century BC Tamassos short time was ruled by the Phoenicians. Then Alexander gave the city the king of Salamis, who helped him in the capture of Tyre. In 312 BC Tamassos became a member of Ptolemaic Egypt, to share the fate of other small city-states of Cyprus.

The first excavations at the site of the ancient city were conducted at the end of the XIX century German archaeologist self-taught M.Onefalsh-Richter (these excavations is considered unscientific). Then we found three tombs. Unfortunately, one of them was disassembled by locals who used the stones for building needs. The other two tombs, located in close proximity to each other, much more fortunate. By its architecture and splendor of decoration, they are close to the 'Tombs of the Kings "in Paphos and have the same name. Dating back to the VI century BC, they are in very good condition, and to the delight of tourists, look great in photos. Elaborately carved from stone by ancient masters, reminiscent of a tomb Tamassos sills and roof slope of a wooden home that era.

The first tomb - the biggest: in addition to the two burial chambers, it includes several other facilities. In one of the burial chambers is a huge sarcophagus, which measures m 2,42 1,26 m.

The second tomb, which has only one burial chamber, similar to the first, but its decoration is much inferior to her.

After independence in 1960 in Cyprus began intensive archaeological survey. In 70-ies he worked in Tamassos German archaeological expedition, led by Professor G. Buhholnom that managed to find the remains of houses and household items.

The real luck for archaeologists was the discovery of fragments of the temple of Aphrodite Astarte. It is significant that most of the objects found in the sanctuary was made of copper. This is indicative of the fact that in the priests of the temple of Aphrodite Tamassos is the leading political force of the state and therefore kept him considerable reserves of copper.

Unfortunately, carried out in Tamassos extensive excavations would provide additional and perhaps sensational data about the life of the ancient inhabitants of this realm, their culture and religion, now it seems impossible. The fact that the center Tamassos and, hence, its public and religious buildings are located deep in the ground just below the village of politicians and the monastery of St. Iraklidisa. Therefore, archaeological survey conducted only in areas free from modern developments.

Monastery of St. Heracleides

In 20 kilometers from Nicosia near the settlement policy is the convent, named after the Holy Martyr Heracleides Bishop Tamasskogo.

Tamassos in the first years of the new era was densely populated: the rich copper mines were the reason. Here in Palestine, King Herod the Great sent many Jews to extract copper. They also were the first commune proselytes (Christian converts), who often had clashes with the locals and who worship pagan gods many, pinned them on the altar of their generous gifts. It is here that the apostles baptized and erected them in the priesthood Iraklidis began construction of a Christian church. And about a year 100 appeared a monastery here, which determined the role Tamassos as the ancient center of Christianity in Cyprus.

Having met in 45, the birth of Christ with the Apostles Paul and Barnabas during their missionary journey to the island, Heracleides was baptized by the Apostle Paul, and, according to legend, was ordained him bishop Tamasskogo (now near the monastery conducted archaeological excavations of the ancient city-state Tamassos). Heracleides settled in a cave, where he founded a small temple and a cell. At the age of 60 years, he was martyred by the pagans, and was buried in his cave. The first stone church on the site appeared already in the II century. In the V century it was rebuilt, and in this form it has remained to this day. In the center of the temple is a manhole in the floor, the service is closed for a wooden cover. It leads to the cave under the altar. There was first the throne and buried himself here Heracleides.

Women nuns became the mistress of the holy place in 1180 year when Bishop Tamassos NILOS, a former abbot of the famous monastery of Machairas, who later became the Archbishop of Cyprus, has created here a convent. Wives-pustynnitsy humbly endured all trials only twice in the whole long history of the monastery losing its monastic fraternity. Waves of passion raged in the world did not spare the holy places. The monastery was destroyed Arabs 806 year, he did not just come into disrepair in the Middle Ages, the newly revived (in 1450, 1588 and 1773 years), was again destroyed during the unfortunate events 1821 year for some time, it contained a sheep, then heal wounds from the blows of British bayonets, which were damaged by the icon of the abbey church.

Despite all the disasters that have occurred with the monastery, the icon survived. Two of the iconostasis, created in different periods of the complicated history of the monastery, the church is decorated with Southern - XVII century and the north, founded in 1774 year. Survived truly unique, yet written in 1611, the icon of Our Lady and St. John the Baptist. With mural on the south wall of the temple, created in the X century, still looking at you the Christ, the reigning Bible where written: "I am the light of the universe."

Maybe fortitude nuns and monks who carried his "strazhbu" in the monastery of St. Iraklidisa gave icons created back in the XVII-XVIII centuries in the well-known at the time the icon workshop of the monastery, and then generously razdarennye to other churches and monasteries of Cyprus. Only the names of the ancient painters called to mind an involuntary trembling: Luca and nectars, Laurence and Filaret wrote here in likah sacred history.

Museum of Byzantine Art in Nicosia today retains the treasures of the monastery - the icon and three murals, miraculously survived from the former rich décor of the abbey church, the walls of which were decorated with paintings. Skull and bones of St. Iraklidisa as sacred relics are stored in two gold-plated reliquary hidden in an arched niche of the church. Holy Iraklidisu drawn dated XV century of dedication in the south aisle of the abbey church.

The sarcophagus of St. Iraklidisa as the sarcophagus of his successor St. Mnasona - one of the 70 the apostles of Christ, here in the monastery, in an unusual mausoleum of the XIV century, located in the eastern part of the southern portico, which was formerly the southern side chapel of the ancient Basilica of the V century, stood on this location. However, many believe that the true burial place of St. Iraklidisa, located under the floor of the mausoleum. You can get there through a hatch or through another door, which is behind the apse of the church. Now the northern aisle from the left of the iconostasis the royal doors for the miraculous icon Heracleides set fair to worship his head in a silver ark, manufactured in the form of episcopal miter. Near the ark is kept in another part of the relics of St. Barnabas. Sami relics remained in the occupied territory in the monastery of St. Barnabas, located in the vicinity of Salamis.

As a result of repression by the Turkish authorities came to the abode of desolation and in the middle of the XIX century and closed there as an ordinary parish. Only in 1962, with the blessing of the Archbishop Makarios III monastery reborn as a female. In the second half of 1990 years here was built a new stone church in honor of St. John the Baptist. In addition to obedience in the temples and on the farm, nuns engaged in icon painting, embroidery, beads weaving, beekeeping, cooking oriental sweets. C 1962 years abode ruled Hariteya abbess died in 2000 year. At the present time is the abbess abbess prodrome.

Village Fikardu

1,5 km south of the village Gurry (Machaira-Nicosia road, through the clergy). The whole village has been declared an ancient monument in order to preserve the wonderful wooden buildings and folk architecture in 18. House Katsiniora and Achilles Dmitry, some parts of which are in 16., Have been restored as bright examples of rural architecture, for which he was awarded the Europa Nostra award in 1987 city

Among others, there are Cyprus and rural museums, one of the most interesting is the village museum Fikardu. The village is located in Fikardu 40 km southwest of Nicosia. Settlement Fikardu always been small: according to statistics, the city 1881 There has been a resident of 64, 122 - of 1931 in and 120 - of 1946 in With 1960-village's population beginning to decline rapidly and today the actual number of permanent residents - 6 people. Despite the fact that Fikardu considered "non-residential", the village is an important monument of traditional Cypriot villages. The architectural style and the old way of life in the country remained unchanged - Fikardu not touched modern trends.

In 1978, the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus launched a campaign to save the village, aimed at preserving and restoring the unique appearance of the village. The whole village has been declared Fikardu "ancient monument" in order to preserve part of the original wooden buildings and the traditional architecture of the houses XVI - XVII centuries.

Houses and Katsiniorosa Ahileassa Dimitri (who are the rural museum), partly related to the XVI century, have been restored and serve as a good example of rural architecture. These monuments of rural architecture in the city of 1986 received the prize «Europa Nostra» («Europa Nostra» - is acting in close cooperation with the European Commission, the Council of Europe and UNESCO Coordination Organization for the Protection of the European cultural heritage, whose main objective is to promote the most important cultural heritage of our continent and the importance of the work on conservation by giving honorary awards).

Apart from the fact that in this mountain village, you will plunge into the atmosphere of this antiquity, the village more and located in a very picturesque area. If you come here in early March, it should let the blooming almonds.

Hours Agriculture Museum Fikardu:
Tuesday - Friday from 9: 00 to 16: 00 (summer with 9: 30 to 16: 30);
Saturday 9: 00 to 15: 30 (summer with 9: 30 to 16: 00);
Sunday 10: 30 to 14: 00 (summer with 10: 00 to 13: 30).

Monastery of Our Lady Machaira

In 40 km south of Nicosia is Machaira Monastery, founded in the year 1148. This is a typical example of a fortified monastery. In the XVII century during worship here to read the prayer "For our Great Lady Russian Empress Catherine and Her royal house."

Monastery of Our Lady Machaira is the second largest monastery after monastery of Our Lady of Kykkos. The monastery is located in the area of ​​the Troodos mountains at an altitude of 870 meters above sea level in a picturesque area on the slopes of Mount Kionia. It was founded in the XII century at the expense of the Emperor Manuel Comnenus, granted the monks Procopius and Ignatius, who visited Constantinople.

After Ignatius abbot of the monastery became a monk Nile, who wrote the charter for this coenobite tsarist and Stavropegic monastery. Accurate and complete title of this statute is that "Rules located on the island of Cyprus revered king's monastery of St. Mary, anoint Machaira."

The miracle-working icon of Our Lady Machaira considered one of the 70 icons painted by Luke the Evangelist. The icon was brought to Cyprus secretly from Asia Minor unknown hermit in times of iconoclasm (730-840 years.). Finding icons happened after arriving from Palestine to Cyprus hermits Ignatios and Neophytos. Divine Providence opened them hidden bushes cave entrance. According to legend, in the hands of them was the knife with which they cut the bushes to get the icon. As a result, an icon called "Maheriotissa" ("Maher" in Greek - knife). The monastery was founded on the very spot where the icon was found. Over its history, Machaira suffered two fires (in 1530 and 1892 years.), During which all burned down, but the icon of Our Lady remained intact. She is now a core value and pride of the monastery.

In addition to the release of the knife, helped find the icon of Our Lady, there are several versions explaining the name of the monastery, one of them tells of the landowner by the name of Machaira, the second - on the cutting-piercing wind, penetrating to the bone, and the third - the growing in surrounding forests grass that could cut the unwary traveler.

As he mentioned in his monk Nile tipike published in 1756 in Venice Ephraim Athens, who also described the Kykkos Monastery, Machairas name has different etymology. Monk Neil writes: "Either the name of the one who first owned the mountain and called his Machaira, either because the mountain steep and precipitous, either because they had found an icon of Virgin Mary, hidden in a cave (perhaps because of the iconoclasm) and in front of it I was vsazhu knife, why now begging usually carry a knife. " Because "we do not know what the reason for this naming, everyone has the right to believe as he wishes."

The monastery Machaira were two large fire: in 1570 and 1892 years. These fires destroyed the main part of the monastery, which was painted with frescoes.

Machairas Monastery of Our Lady is one of three stavropigiyskih (ie, self-managed and independent) monasteries in Cyprus. Construction of the church was completed in 1905 year. Carved wooden iconostasis refers to 1919 year. Mosaic in front of the church dedicated to the history of the founding of the monastery. The gallery on the top floor of the illustrated text story captured Machaira.

The monastery played an important role during the Turkish armed struggle against British rule (1955-1959 years.). Undoubtedly, Machaira was one of the pillars of religious and national identity Cypriots. In addition, he was an important center of care and support to the population. During the Ottoman occupation, the monastery was located in a Greek school.

The monks of the monastery and Ignatius Machaira Gregory brought his life on the altar of the Fatherland and the Church. They, along with eleven monks of the monastery of the Virgin Kyantariotissy sacrificed their lives on the river Pedieos resisting oppression and Catholic heretical beliefs. National hero Archbishop Cyprian, who was martyred together with other bishops and nobles of the island in July 9 1821, was formerly a monk of the Monastery of Machairas. There was also closely associated with the monastery of the Virgin Machaira Ioanniky monk, rose in revolt against the Turks in July 1832 in the village of St. Elias in the Karpas, who was later arrested in the village Prastio Ammohostu and in the same year was executed in Nicosia.

But in recent times, 3 1957 year in March, deputy commander of the liberation movement against the British colonialists (EOKA) Grigoris Afksentiu, from the village of Lisi, died as a hero near the monastery, where his secret hideout. Afksentiu hiding in a monastery under the guise of Archimandrite Chrysanthos, but in the spring, the British 1957 tracked him down and tried to arrest. He resisted and was killed in March 3 when the British set fire to his hideout. Now it is decorated with wreaths and Greek flag.

Near the monastery Grigoris Afksentiu monument. He captured bronze in the form of EOKA guerrilla. Just beyond the gates of the monastery is a small museum dedicated to the memory of the hero.

The monastery has a small shop with the Orthodox books, icons, where you can buy incense, kuritelnitsy, as well as eco-friendly products made by the monks - mountain honey, olive oil, herbs, jam, apple cider vinegar and more. The road to the monastery is through a picturesque mountain village - Guri and Fikardu. On the cloister a beautiful view of the surrounding mountains.

Village Peristerona

27 km. On the way to Nicosia - Troodos. There founded Church of Saints Barnabas and Hilarion. Supposedly was built in the early 10 in., Is an outstanding example of Byzantine architecture, with five domes forming a cross. Next to the church stands the Turkish mosque of Peristerona, the evidence of a long and peaceful coexistence of the villagers (and in general, Cyprus) - Greek Cypriots and Turkish origin.

In 30 km west of Nicosia on the River Peristerona village nestled modestly. So humble that even his name she does not have. And so generously shared river flowing past her own name. The village of Peristerona famous for the fact that here peacefully coexist with each other Orthodox church and a mosque. Tourists is a little different, but the symbolic neighborhood is some pathos, solemn feeling: it is not clear what, but the pride and majesty just bursting, whimsically mixing with a sense of responsibility for something, a feeling of tenderness toward something, a sense of mourning for about something. Perhaps that is why, according visited here Peristerona village - this is the best place for memories of his youth.

Kakopetria

This lies at the northern foothills of the Troodos village is particularly loved by the residents of the capital Nicosia that the weekend coming to Kakopetria. In order to at least temporarily its green shady streets forget about reigning in the city heat. It has everything to relax: a few small hotels, beautiful nature and fine restaurants in which one of the most popular dishes is a delicious sauce cooked trout (in Greek - pestrofa).

In the center of the village is the "bad stone" which gave the name to the village. According to legend, in ancient times to marry the couple had three times run around the stone. One day another pair of newlyweds ran a stone fell dead - since the stone and they called the "bad".

Close to Kakopetria there is another point of interest - the church of Agios Nikolaos tis Stegis (Agios Nikolaos tis Stegis), built in 11 century. This is typical of the Byzantine church of that era. Decorated with frescoes.

Galata - a world cultural heritage by UNESCO.

The village is named Galata is located just one kilometer north of the village of Kakopetria. Landmark Galata are 4 churches, two of which - Podithou Panagia (Panagia Podithou) and Panagia Theotokos (Panagia Theotokos), built in 16 century. In the painting of these churches are read not only the Byzantine, Venetian and motives, which automatically brings them to the list of attractions that are of particular interest for science in general and for individual judges. Church of Panagia Podithou included in the list of World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO, which in itself means a lot.

Church of the Holy Cross (Agiasmati) in Platanistisa

According to legend, in this quiet and secluded location, where the pine-giants rush into the blue skies, the refugees from Agiasmati, near Constantinople, founded in memory of the land of their fathers eponymous monastery. They also, in all probability, and brought with them from Asia Minor manuscript containing colorful miniatures that tell of Saint Helena, its search and finding of the True Cross. This legend, popular in the West during the Crusades, was not as widespread in the Byzantine world. How was the fate of the monastery, we do not know. But at the beginning of the XVIII century, when a monk Basil Barsky traveled to Cyprus, the monastic life in Agiasmati already faded. And to this day the story has retained a unique architectural and artistic terms the ancient Byzantine church, which is now protected by an international organization UNESCO.

Church of Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Agiasmati) is located in the village of Platanistasa (area of ​​Nicosia) - in the east of the Troodos Mountains, just below the village of Lagoudera. This church - the only surviving structure of a small monastery, which is mentioned in the inscription above the southern entrance to the temple.

According to legend, in this quiet and secluded location, where the pine-giants rush into the blue skies, the refugees from Agiasmati, near Constantinople, founded in memory of the land of their fathers eponymous monastery. They also, in all probability, and brought with them from Asia Minor manuscript containing colorful miniatures that tell of Saint Helena, its search and finding of the True Cross. This legend, popular in the West during the Crusades, was not as widespread in the Byzantine world. How was the fate of the monastery, we do not know. But at the beginning of the XVIII century, when a monk Basil Barsky traveled to Cyprus, the monastic life in Agiasmati already faded. And to this day the story has retained a unique architectural and artistic terms the ancient Byzantine church, which is now protected by an international organization UNESCO.

Build a church Exaltation of the Cross was in the early Venetian period, at the end of the XV century. All its walls, both internal and external, were decorated with frescoes of luxury. To protect them from the vagaries of the weather, the church from four sides by a portico, wider on the west side, where there is usually rapolagaet narthex (lobby), and built a steep wooden roof covered flat roof tiles, creating a unique structure that has kept under its roof a beautiful and unique, not only for Cyprus, but also for the whole world, museum murals. In the central and single nave, which is in the east is traditionally crowned by a semicircular apse, of the cloister are three entrances.

The church was built at the expense of the priest Petar Peter and his wife Pepanii and painted their means Philip Gul (Syrian origin, was considered at that time one of the best artists) or 1494 year or 1505. It's all painted painter Philip Gul but the outer part of the west wall, which depicts "Second Coming." In the first half of XX century. this mural was rewritten and changed its composition. The uniqueness of the painting of the church consists in the fact that in his work the artist used three different artistic styles. Philip Gul familiar with Western painting, tried to reconcile the Byzantine and Western traditions based on local color.

Exhibitions of painting can be divided into two cycles: 30 scenes from the New Testament are located in the top tier of the nave, and in the bottom of the image are located 30 saints.

To the left of the altar in the northern niche discharged Holy Cross, which is devoted to the church. All the space niches and arches occupy every corner of the miniature scenes. They tell the story of Saint Helena finding the True Cross. According to legend, Queen Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine, deeply honoring the Lord's Cross, and eager to find him, in 326 year went up to Jerusalem. Having collected all the Jewish people, she tried to find out where the buried Cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified. But no one remembers it. Angered, the queen promised to severely punish the silent. And then people pointed to Judas, whose family treasured legend of the Holy Cross. But the Jew persistently denied the accuracy of what was said. Then the queen ordered to throw him into a deep pit, and left without food. On the third day, Judas decided to tell Elena that while praying at Calvary inspiration came to him, and he felt buried where the True Cross. At this point, St. Helen organized essentially the first archaeological excavations of Christian relics. Then we found three crosses and a plate with the words: "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Iudesky." Found solemnly handed over to the queen. To find out which of them is true, the crosses in turn began to bring to the dead woman. And when they laid the Cross of Christ, a miracle happened - a woman alive. Judas believed in God and became a Christian, he later became bishop of Jerusalem under the name Siriakos. Later he nashёlgvozdi, who were driven into the body of Christ, and brought them as a gift to the queen. The painting, which thanks Elena kneeling bishop closes the cycle of scenes devoted to the search for the Holy Cross. And if traditionally on both sides of the Cross are depicted Constantine and Helena, which symbolizes his miraculous discovery, the church at the base of Agiasmati Cross - holy warriors, clad in Roman armor with a cross on his chest. These unique details underline the extraordinary opening theme Cross and reflect the influence of Western culture on the work of the artist. It is in this composition showed skill Philip Gul, who was able to adapt the realistic style of portrait miniatures to the Byzantine system of monumental painting.

Church of Our Lady in Arakiotissy Lagoudera

Ancient Byzantine church of the Virgin Arakiotissy located just off the main road from Nicosia to the Troodos Mountains, between the mountain villages of Lagoudera and Sarandi. Researchers believe that the church appeared at the end of the XII century., Presumably shortly before the arrival of the Crusaders. To this day it preserved the church and a small two-storey monastery building with cells overlooking the sundeck, which is supported by large wooden poles.

Ancient Byzantine church of the Virgin Arakiotissy located just off the main road from Nicosia to the Troodos Mountains, between the mountain villages of Lagoudera and Sarandi.

Researchers believe that the church appeared at the end of the XII century., Presumably shortly before the arrival of the Crusaders. To this day it preserved the church and a small two-storey monastery building with cells overlooking the sundeck, which is supported by large wooden poles.

Architecturally the church is a one-nave structure with vaulted high dome resting on a drum with twelve narrow windows. In the XIV century. It was attached to the narthex, which in the XVII century once again destroyed and replaced by a new, much larger, which made it possible to make the church more spacious and roomy.

To protect the temple from the bad weather, the second roof has been built - steep and sloping, covered the flat tiles and goes far beyond the walls. It is possible to create the protruding part around the church atrium (hall), protected on all sides by a wooden lattice. The dome of the church was covered with a separate small roof. These additional details that emerged somewhat later, probably in the XIV century, helped to keep the painting, which is fully covered not only the interior of the temple, but its exterior walls.

Wall frescoes in Lagoudera, according to experts, the most striking example of monumental painting of the end of the XII century. During these years, we worked in Cyprus, many brilliant artists who create their masterpieces, but the painting of the church are simply unique. According to experts, such examples are not preserved even in Constantinople. Colors, proportions, use of space, petite, graceful posture - all done masterfully, with meticulous care of the small details, barely visible to the inquisitive eyes. Feeling pattern, form and rhythm that was already evident in the paintings of the church of Asinou, were developed here in the true movement, expressed in flowing robes and dramatic gestures, which contrast with the peace and quiet. Many researchers, for example, A. and J. Stylianou, Marina Solomidu-Ieronitidu converge on the idea that the creator of these paintings was Theodor Apsevdis - Greek artist who has mastered in the court workshops of Constantinople virtuoso technique and skill mural. His paintings graced the whole historical period of the Byzantine Empire and was later adopted and perfected by the Italian creators frescoes XIII - XIV centuries.

Church in the list of World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO 1985 years.

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