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Nicosia

Nicosia is certainly worth a stroll in the old part of town, within the ancient Venetian walls, built the original star. In the city center - pedestrian area of ​​narrow streets, and here are the ancient historical and architectural monuments.

  • Famagustskie gates - Part of the fortifications. In the center there is a dome wall, through which the light of the sun, and on the sides can be considered "closed house" - with virtually no windows on the outside, but bright and cozy courtyard. It is an echo of the era when the mass stealing of children and women, parents and hid them from view.
  • Cyprus Museum - The first and largest on the island, and here the history of Cyprus from the Neolithic. The halls are a lot of archaeological finds, there are various expositions of art. All items found on the island, and the collection is completely unique. You can also visit the museum of Byzantine icons, the museum will be interesting handicrafts.
  • Laiki Eaton - The most famous quarter of Nicosia (Cyprus), its name translates as "The neighbor's quarter." This restored a picturesque corner of the city in the traditional architectural style. At the small cozy streets are located coffee shops, shops, souvenir shops.

Women will surely love the Cypriot museum of jewelry, and most men should definitely look to the railway museum. Many churches and temples that have survived from ancient times, attracting all indifferent to the beauty and splendor.

It is believed that Nicosia - this is one of the most ancient cities in the world, even in 7 century BC there were already settlements. There will definitely be interesting to tourists: someone wants to join the amazing cultures that were repeatedly mixed, someone will appreciate the beauty of Cyprus wine and gourmet dishes Balkan, Turkish and Greek cooking, and someone will love the luxurious spa and ancient Byzantine baths. Here seeks to many tourists for a variety of experiences.

Today Nicosia (Cyprus) is divided into two parts, it is both the capital of the Republic of Cyprus, and the administrative center of Seren Cyprus where Turks live. Also in town is the border checkpoint. Tourists and locals with EU passports can freely pass through the border. Although this government center, shopping here is well developed industry.

Be sure to take a stroll in the center of town on the old market just to enjoy the atmosphere of Mediterranean trade, where rampaging paint, fresh smells, sold enchanting spices.

Near the market located hotel "Shed", try to get on its roof, where you can enjoy views of the city and look at the difference between the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus.

Book a tour to Nicosia, and recreation will bring you a memorable stay in Cyprus.

Attractions Nicosia

The main historical and architectural monuments are located in Nicosia old town within the Venetian walls. The narrow streets of the old houses form a pedestrian area, it focused shops, restaurants and coffee shops.

Venetian Walls

These fortifications were erected at the very end of the reign of the Venetians, during the period from 1567 to 1570, designed by the architect Giulio Savorgnano. The earth shafts were faced with a stone, 11 bastions were to facilitate the protection of city walls, the total length of which was almost 5km. For the passage to the city three gates were built: Famagust, Paphos and Kyrenion. However, the enormous work of the builders was in vain. In 1570, the storming city of Turks broke through the bastion of Constance (Constanza) - where the nowadays Bayraktar mosque (Bayraktar Mosque), and Nicosia fell. The fortifications, called the Venetian fortifications, were not damaged. Until now, the Famagusta Gates have survived. At the present time in the fortifications there are constructed transport routes.

An iconic symbol of the capital Nicosia are undoubtedly the Venetian walls (Venetian Walls). These walls and lies beneath the moat surrounding the old part of the city and create a unique image of the capital of Cyprus.

The first walls around Nicosia were built by the Franks in the XIV century and covered a much larger area. When the Venetians occupied Cyprus, they decided to demolish the Frankish constructions, because they are outdated and do not provide reliable protection against new types of weapons, such as artillery. And the size of the old walls were too big, that they would be able to control a small army of Venetians. It bothers them, and too close to the wall of mountains to the east and south-east of the city.

Venetian walls were erected at the very end of the reign of the Venetians, during the period from 1567 to 1570, designed by the architect Giulio Savorgnano. The circumference of the walls was about 3 km. Throughout the walls there were 11 towers and fortified gates: Famagusta, Paphos and Kyrenion. The earth shafts were faced with a stone, 11 bastions were supposed to facilitate the protection of city walls, the total length of which was almost 5 km. Protect the city so impressive construction was not possible: soon after the completion of the construction arrived in 1570, the Turkish army successfully stormed these impregnable, it would seem, walls. Storming the city of the Turks broke through the bastion of Constance (Constanza) - where the nowadays mosque of Bayraktar (Bayraktar Mosque), and Nicosia fell. The fortifications, called the Venetian fortifications, were not damaged. Until now, the Famagusta Gates have survived.

Today, partially destroyed the fortification in the old city of Nicosia still makes a strong impression. A former fortress ditches are located parks with sculptures, parking and open-air market.

Famagusta Gate

One of the three passes through the Venetian fortifications, known as Porto Giuliano. Out of the gate started their way, those who went to Famagusta and Larnaca. The restoration project was awarded the gate international prize "Europa Nostra". Currently, indoor gates regularly hosts exhibitions and musical evenings.

Venetian walls encircling the old city have a circumference of 4,5 km. Defensive shaft is surrounded by a wide moat, which are the heart-shaped bastions. In Nicosia the three medieval fortress gate (to the north, south and east) were thrown over the moat bridge. Famagusta Gate (Famagusta Gate) -one of three passes through the Venetian fortifications, known as Porto Giuliano. Out of the gate started their way, those who went to Famagusta and Larnaca.

The Famagusta Gate was the most fortified part of the Venetian city wall. In the center of the 35-meter arch there is a dome with a diameter of 11 m, transmitting light, and in the side rooms exhibitions and conferences are held. Here you can get acquainted with the legacy of the Ottoman era - the so-called "Closed Houses". This is an echo of the time of violence and cruelty, when the abduction of girls and children was common. In order to protect their children from the hands of villains, caring parents began to build fortress houses with almost "blind" facades, but a cozy patio and a blooming garden.

The gate was restored. The restoration project was awarded the gate international prize «Europa Nostra». Currently, indoor gates regularly hosts exhibitions and musical evenings - are now working here Nicosia Municipal Cultural Centre "Ammohostu Pili" ("Famagusta Gate").

It was also renovated one of the most characteristic of the old quarters of Nicosia, which is adjacent to Famagustskim goal.

Address: Leoforos Athinas (at Bastion Caraffa). Tel. 43-08-77.
Hours of operationMonday - Friday from 10: 00 do13: 00, with 16: 00 to 19: 00, in the summer - with 17: 00 to 20: 00.
Admission is free.

Municipal park

Park stretches a green semicircle on the outside of the Venetian fortifications, where once was the moat. Green islands in the city center - a pleasant place to stroll.

Cyprus Museum

The largest archaeological museum on the island. Exhibit halls 14 give the most complete picture of the history of Cyprus since the Neolithic era. The museum includes exhibition galleries, open to the public treasury, storerooms, a chemical laboratory, library and photo archives. Built in 1908 1935 In the city began the reorganization of underground spaces, which is still ongoing. There is a souvenir and book shops, cafes.

The main museum and the capital and throughout the country, is considered the Cyprus Museum, the exhibition which provide the most complete picture of the history of Cyprus. Cyprus Museum - the first museum on the island. As well as in the Asian, African, American and Australian regions, the first museum in Cyprus is the result of European colonial expansion (from 1878 1960 for years. Cyprus was a British colony).

The Cyprus Museum was created on private funds (by subscription) and around 1888 the first collections of antiquities were housed in a building reserved for the Museum on Victoria Street in the old Nicosia. In 1899, J. Murray and M. Onefalsch-Richter (the first scientists who made a significant contribution to the development of Cypriot archeology) published the first catalog of the Cyprus Museum. In 1908, the construction of a new building of the Cyprus Museum began, dedicated to the memory of Queen Victoria. The work was completed in 1912 and the museum moved to a new building, where it is located to this day. In 1924, the first curator of the Museum was appointed. This time and the creation of the present Cyprus Museum is dated. The Cyprus Museum, like other museums in Cyprus, is managed by the Department of Antiquities, which is a special department of the Ministry of Transport and Public Construction of Cyprus.

To date, the museum consists of 14 exhibition galleries (or exposition halls) open to the public, treasury, storerooms, chemical laboratory, photo archive (for scientific publications by the Department of Antiquities staff all the necessary materials are photographed and sketched) and libraries. In the workshops and laboratories of the Cyprus Museum, most of the archaeological excavations are concentrated, cleaned and preserved. The library of the Department of Antiquities, which is located in the same architectural complex, is about 10 thousand volumes, attracting many both Cypriot and foreign scholars.

All archaeological material in the Museum, was found on the island and therefore is unique to the study of culture and art of ancient Cyprus. Assigning different findings determined the structure and arrangement of the exhibits in the museum. It's not just the Archaeological Museum, and Museum of Art. In its halls are exhibited the best examples of Cypriot art, but do not remain without attention and subjects related to everyday life and religion, even if their aesthetic value is minimal.

The prehistoric period occupies a significant place in the museum's premises: the Neolithic and the Chalcolith are represented in all phases by tools, utensils and small items that occupy the first hall. The early bronze period is dedicated to Hall II with a collection of religious objects, a variety of dishes, the first bronze tools. In Hall III a panorama of the development of Cypriot ceramics is presented, beginning with the middle bronze period up to the Roman era. Your wealth and originality will amaze you with the IV hall - the hall of terracotta (clay idols from Agia Irini), in which the finds are presented almost in the form they were found around the sacrificial altar. In hall V, a sculpture of the archaic and Hellenistic periods is demonstrated, in the sixth hall - a sculpture of the Roman period. In the large hall VIIA there are various expositions: a complete series of bronze tools and small items from the early Bronze Age to the Roman era, stone stamps and coins, gold coins, glassware and alabaster. Particularly stands out in the Museum of Cyprus Museum VIIB. In this hall there are reconstructed burials of all periods. In the VIII room are exhibited marble sculptures of the Roman era. In the hall IX there are many figurines made of clay and steatite. In the XVIII hall clay tablets with Kipro-Minoan writing, stelae with Cypriot syllabic writing, as well as alphabetic inscriptions are exhibited. Hall XIX exhibits a tombstone sculpture. In halls XX and XXI you will get acquainted with the finds from Salamina, Engomi and Kition.

Nicosia City Museum Levendion

The exposition in the original form tells the history of the city. The museum was awarded the international prize "The Best European Museum of 1991." Located in the quarter Laiki Gitonia in a house built in the last century. There is a gift shop.

Byzantine Museum and Art Gallery

The museum contains one of the finest collections of Byzantine icons, since 8-9 in., And visitors can trace the development of iconography for a millennium. Here fragments of frescoes in 14., Altar 17-18 c. Carved "royal doors" with iconography. Art Gallery is located on the top floor. Paintings by European artists from the period 16v. according to 19., mainly on religious themes. There are big names, but the authorship of the great, alas, has not been confirmed.

The Cultural Center under the Archbishop Makarios III Foundation in Nicosia, consisting of the Byzantine Museum, the Picture Gallery and the Library was opened in 1982 year. In the Picture Gallery on the first floor there are paintings, old maps, drawings and other exhibits of great historical value; on the second floor - works by European artists inspired by the Greek revolution 1821. The Byzantine Museum has a collection consisting of 150 portable Byzantine icons collected in churches and monasteries of Cyprus. Icons were written in the period from VIII to XVIII centuries. This collection allows you to follow the development of Cypriot iconography and the difference in styles that came to replace each other. In terms of the scale of the exhibition, as well as the cultural and historical value of icons, the Byzantine Museum of Nicosia is considered one of the best museums in the world.

Byzantine Museum has two exhibition halls. In the first room you can see fragments of iconography and decoration of the altar of the church, which has a characteristic arched shape, repetition in the wood-based products. These works are transferred from the churches of Nicosia, Paphos, Pedoulas, Arkapasa and other towns and villages of Cyprus.

Among the oldest icons is worth noting the small (about 25h18 cm) icon "Virgin and Child" (Panagia Vrefokratusa), dating back to VIII-IX centuries. Up to now reached only the face of Our Lady, made in typical planar manner with a dark contour, emphasizing geometric folds purple himation (cloak) and big eyes image anxiously peering into space. Mosaic cracelures preserved and significant darkening of the paint layer does not hide from us expressiveness of the image.

Many of the images are also charred fragments, especially at the corners. This is due to the fact that a number of future exhibits was taken from the occupied north of Cyprus, and because they show signs of barbarian destruction.

At the back of the room to the right place at the altar erected "apse". Here, under the arches of trehparusnymi "apse", exhibited excellent work carved gilt altar (XVII-XVIII cc.), And the throne of the Archbishop (kon.XVIII - nach.XIX cc.). The frescoes decorating the vaults belong to the XIV century and were transferred (duplicated) from the church of St. Nicholas in Kakopetria (Church of St. Nicholas under the double roof). It is a scene of the Assumption of the Virgin, Christ Appearing to the Apostles and the descent of the Holy Spirit.

The interiors of the second room are more modern, there is a room for educational programs of the Foundation. In this room you will find semicircular showcases with exhibits from the collection of the Reliquary of the Archbishop's Palace - the ceremonial vestments of Archbishop Makarios III, miter and chalices of the XVII-XIX centuries, rare editions of the Gospels in sumptuous salaries and silver cross-tops. Immediately at the entrance, on the left, a row of wooden stands begins, in the countertops of which are mounted plates with fragments of frescoes (late 15th century) from the Church of Christ of Antiphonitis in Kalogrea, which have a special history. In 1974, during the invasion of the Turks into the north of Cyprus, these murals were knocked down and sent by Turkish antiques dealers to Europe. And only relatively recently, in 1997, with the help of the German police, the frescoes were collected and returned to Cyprus.

In the hall are 25 from 36 scenes of the collection of the Byzantine art museum: images of Jesus Christ, Our Lady with the Coming, Byzantine emperors and saints. A rich polychromatic color scale will attract your attention to the early Byzantine mosaics of the 5th-6th centuries, transferred from the occupied north (the church of Panagia tis Canarnas to Litrancomi) and carefully placed under glass. These mosaics with images of the Apostles and Jesus Christ (according to the early canon, Jesus appears as a fragile, beardless young man with a golden halo around his head) have an extremely "modern" and even expressive mood. The nature of these mosaics is close to other works of late antiquity, also bearing a pronounced portrait, namely, to the "Fayum portrait" - the so-called "funeral portraits" in Egypt of the Ptolemid era imposed on the faces of the deceased, tightly knotted like mummies. They were wooden tablets with a wax layer on which painting was applied, with almost photographic accuracy passing features.

Museum and gallery are open from Monday to Friday to 9.00 16.30 (these days Gallery is closed for a break up with 13.00 14.00), on Saturday, with up to 9.00 13.00.

Cultural Center is located in the Palace of the Archbishop (Plateia Archiepiskopou Kiprianou).

Ethnographic Museum of Cyprus

In December 1950, in Nicosia, on the initiative and active support of the Society of Cypriot researchers (leading its activities with 1937 years), which was headed by a prominent painter Adamantios Diamantis Cyprus (b. In the city of 1900), it opened the Museum of Folk Art (now it is the name of the Ethnographic Museum of Cyprus). The museum is located at the residence of the Archbishop of Cyprus, a few meters from the Cathedral of St. John, the former residence of the Archbishop.

In 1961 year for the Cypriot archbishop it built a new residence, and thanks to the efforts and the efforts of the Society of Cypriot Explorers former building of the Archdiocese was transferred to him. Since then, the Museum of Folk Art of Cyprus occupies the entire first floor of a former archbishop's residence, in the halls of which housed his collection and collection. However, these premises halls called pretty hard, as this small cell of the former monastery of the XV century, which belonged to the Benedictine Order.

But the history of the museum began even earlier, in 1931 year, when a group of participants in the movement for the revival of folk art put forward the idea to create a collection of samples of art Cypriots. But the political situation of the time (up to 1960 years Cyprus was a British colony) are not allowed to put this idea into practice. Cypriots have always opposed British rule and after their performances are usually followed by violent repression.

However, five years later the issue of organizing the museum began to be again widely discussed, and the museum was founded. And the beginning was difficult. First, enthusiasts did not have any experience, since in Cyprus there were practically no specialists in the museum business, especially in the field of ethnography and folklore. In addition, in English circles such aspirations were considered as hostile and dangerous. But the members of the Society had enough enthusiasm, perseverance and courage to complete the work that had been started up to the end. Already in 1948 they managed to get a small room on the first floor of the residence of the Cypriot archbishop, in which they placed the first 457 exhibits. It was national clothes, wooden sculpture, decorations and some other things. They themselves collected the organizers of the Museum, as well as sent to the residents of different areas of the island.

During the first ten years of existence, the Museum of Folk Art, the British authorities closed it three times under all sorts of pretexts. Such repression by the authorities scared off many visitors, and the existence of the Museum in Nicosia, and especially outside the few people knew.

Most of the premises occupied by the museum's collection, and the rest are located in the working rooms Society for the Study of Cyprus (under whose patronage and is a museum) and the research institute, whose staff do a great job of studying and promoting Cypriot folk art.

Customers are beginning to get acquainted with the exhibits of the Museum, even without going in its facilities. On a small platform in front of the museum, under a canopy, exposed a huge jar of red clay and wooden press to produce olive oil.

In 12 the museum is widely samples of arts and crafts XVIII and XIX centuries, as well as traditional products Cypriot artists performed in the middle of the XX century. The collection includes a variety of wooden handicrafts, painted pottery, gold and silver jewelry, fabrics and lace, which in ancient times was famous island.

In the first room of the museum collection of looms, in which all four exhibits, but each of them designed for a specific purpose. On one machine woven material for sewing only men's clothing, the other has been adapted for the production of fabrics with patterns, and the third was used for the manufacture of fabrics, of which the later sewn bags ...

And in the following halls are exposed samples of a wide variety of fabrics and products made of them. Here it is, and flax, and cotton and wool, and silk. Visitors and tourists primarily affects a variety of linen fabrics, which are collected from all over the island. This diversity is dominated by yellow, light green, dark blue, gray and red - a traditional national dress for the residents of Cyprus.

The very traditional clothes at the Museum occupies a special place because the people of Cyprus since ancient times it paid very much attention. Cypriots themselves say that their clothes, primarily in its color, read their character and temperament.

Organizers of the Museum gave two small cells for recreating the interior of the house of the Cypriots of the last century. Among the household items that gave a special touch to the dwelling, in each Cypriot house there were two wooden cupboards (they were located in opposite corners), hanging wooden shelves for dishes (decorative and daily use), chests for clothes. All wooden products are decorated with carvings, and some are also painted in soft colors. In the museum interior of the Cyprian house, visitors for the first time meet with copper utensils. In general, all these household items can still be seen in the homes of poor Cypriots.

The collection of wooden handicrafts can be seen beds, wardrobes, cupboards, spoons, salt shakers, paper knives. Many of the items are decorated with the finest thread in the form of geometric patterns, color, stylized figures of animals, birds and humans. Special charm combined with a thread creates a painting with bright colors: red, blue and green. The tradition of such ornaments dates back to the Byzantine era.

Unusually original and interesting presented at the Museum of silver and gold. The largest production center of Nicosia was where his art is particularly famous silversmiths. Gold items have less demand, because they were only available to very rich people.

In the Museum there are works by contemporary Cypriot craftsmen, but the execution is necessarily in the traditional manner. In the gift shop you can buy traditional Cypriot products.

Huskies Getoniya

It means "neighbor quarter." The area of ​​the old city, which was renovated with love and diligence. House of traditional architecture, limestone, decorated with balconies and shutters are protected, forming narrow streets with craft shops and souvenir shops, with lots of coffee shops and taverns. Ideally suited for hiking. Located within the Venetian walls, not far from the area Plateia Elefterias, opposite the bastion D'Avila.

The area of ​​Laika Gitonia, which means "Neighborhood Quarter", is perhaps the most famous and picturesque quarter in the city of Nicosia. This area of ​​the old city is restored. All the buildings here (even relatively new ones) have recently been rebuilt in the style of 20-ies. Souvenir shops, workshops of artisans, taverns and restaurants are comfortably located on winding, winding streets, radiating an amazing charm and retaining a charming identity. Houses of traditional architecture, made of limestone, decorated with balconies and protected by shutters, form narrow streets with handicraft workshops and souvenir shops, with many cafes and taverns.

"Laiki Guyton" - a pedestrian part of the city, which was reconstructed and revived the atmosphere of the old city. The two main streets of old Nicosia - Didre and Anasagoru - still remain the most commercial streets of the city in the pedestrian zone.

A walk through the old town - it's like stepping back in time. District Laiki Guyton is ideally suited for hiking.

Located within the Venetian walls, not far from the area Plateia Elefterias, opposite the bastion D'Avila.

Ledra Street

Pedestrian street, bordering the quarter of Laika Geetonia from the west. It stretched from the Venetian fortifications to the city center. One of the main shopping streets, although not always here was such serenity. The English called it "the mile of death", because during the struggle of the Cypriots for independence, many British soldiers were killed there. You can not pass this street along its entire length - it is partitioned off to the center by an army post. Behind the post follows a narrow buffer zone behind which the positions of the Turkish army. Today, there is a checkpoint through which one can get to the occupied territories.

Ledra Street (Lidras Street) in Nicosia - pedestrian street, limiting Laiki Gitonia west. The street stretches from the Venetian fortifications to the city center.

Ledra - one of the main shopping streets, although not always there reigned such serenity. The British called it "a mile of Death" because during the struggle for independence Cypriots (1955-1959 years.) Here were killed many British soldiers. Walk this street for its entire length, you can not - it is closer to the center is blocked by an army post. During fasting should be a narrow buffer zone and further the position of the Turkish army, which you can look through special openings in the fence.

Museum of the liberation struggle 1955-1959 years

Museum of National Struggle 1955-1959 years. That is located in Nicosia, near the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist, tells about the events that took place in Cyprus in 50-ies of XX century. In the years of the struggle for the independence of Cyprus from the UK.

The history of the struggle for the independence of Cyprus dates back to the plebiscite 1950 years (plebiscite - "the decision of the people" (Lat.), The popular vote for the solution of critical, public affairs), on which the people of Cyprus unconditionally called for Enosis - union with Greece. For centuries, the idea of ​​union with Greece troubled hearts of Greek Cypriots, because the historical roots of unity with Greece, Cyprus obvious. This is evidenced by the customs, culture, lifestyle, language of the people.

In the opening room of the museum next to the historical information there are several exhibits, confirming the identity of many aspects of the Cyprus and Greek cultures. For example, an iron sword in 7. BC, or antique bas-relief depicting warriors. Even the expert will not be easy to answer the question with Greece or Cyprus these unique finds. A three coins dating back to 5. BC. and cast in the reign of King Evagoras I, designed to clearly explain the reasons for the visitor desire for Enosis - in the reign of this king of united Cyprus was particularly close with Greece.

In the first hall of the museum you immerse yourself in the atmosphere of events that occurred after plebiscite. The Secretary for Foreign Affairs Hopkinson made a statement in the British Parliament stating that: "The right of self-determination for Cyprus will never be recognized." This "never" has filled the cup of patience of the people. Both the left and right parties of Cyprus called on the people to a general strike. Protests began in Limassol, Larnaca and Nicosia, which were brutally suppressed. On the walls of the hall are black-and-white photographs, images on which correspond to actual dimensions, so you will surely feel yourself on the streets of Cypriot cities, among people carrying Greek flags and chanting: "Freedom, Independence, Enosh!" The chronicle of 1955 events in the 1st hall comes alive with the language of posters, leaflets, unique photographs.

One of the sections of the museum's exposition is dedicated to the activities of Archbishop Makarios III - the spiritual leader of the insurgent people, and his associates. Several times the leader of the Cypriot nation traveled to the United States, where he applied to the UN, informed the UN members about the situation in Cyprus and the aspirations of his people. But, alas, to no avail. Already after the beginning of the armed struggle in October 1955, he met with John Harding, head of the British administration in Cyprus. Unswervingly, the archbishop demanded recognition of the right of his people to self-determination. Knowing the great authority of the archbishop in Cyprus and among the world community, Harding still decided to arrest the head of the oldest Christian church, Archbishop Makarios III, along with the Bishop of Kyrenia Kyprian and others. In March 1956, they were exiled to one of the islands of the Seychelles ridge. In the special section of the exposition, the instruction that was presented to the arrested was demonstrated. It says that the British authorities will do everything possible to ensure that the stay of the archbishop and his associates in the Seychelles "was pleasant and comfortable." Such hypocrisy provokes resentment even after decades. The exposition presents the personal belongings of the Archbishop and General Grivas, many photographs, and their expressive portraits. An Orthodox person, going to this hall of the museum, will be touched by seeing the sacred vessels for the sacrament, which the archbishop took with him to exile. The exposition is made especially expressive by sculptural images. Exceptionally realistic and impressive is the sculptural group depicting demonstrators, among them very young wrestlers, demonstration is dispersed by policemen. In the same room you will see unique photographs that show how British soldiers arrest children, after having examined school bags, and search the priests.

In the center of the next hall a mountain cave was recreated. In it you can look and see there guerrilla shelter. Partisans in the mountain forests often entered into battle with parts of the regular British army. Partisan weapons are represented here: homemade mines, grenades, pistols, machine guns and even machine guns, made from improvised means (various water pipes). Some grenades and Cypriot mines cast themselves, the field smelting furnace is exhibited. Here is an exposition dedicated to the hero of the liberation movement Grigory Afksendiu. Being surrounded by enemies, the patriot fought and did not give up even the wounded. 3 March 1957, he was burned by the British alive in a cave, from which he led a long battle. The feat of the hero is immortalized in the maherays forests, where the Monument "The Eagle of Maheras" stands opposite Mount Kioni. A small exposition devoted to the hero is also open in the monastery of the Mother of God of Machheriotissa, where the monks repeatedly hid it from the persecution of the British authorities.

The museum exposition is completed gallery of memory: one hundred and twenty pictures of heroes and about inextinguishable candle is lit each. 1 April 1960, Cyprus became independent. The museum is located in Nicosia, near the Cathedral of St. John the Divine. Entrance to the museum is free. For information call: 22-305878.

Cathedral of St.. John

The cathedral was built in 1662 on the site of a Benedictine monastery. St. John was called the beloved disciple of Christ. The cathedral is famous for its beautiful frescoes in 18., Reflecting the time of discovery of the relics of St. Barnabas, who was the founder of an independent Church of Cyprus.

In the historical center of Nicosia, in the narrow streets enclosed in a massive ring of the Venetian walls, stands the Orthodox Cathedral of Saint John (Agios Ionnis). It is the headquarters of the Greek Orthodox Archbishop of Cyprus. This is one of the most revered church on the island - the official service, conducted by Archbishop come first political face of the country.

Cathedral of St. John was elevated to archbishop Nikiforos 1962 year on the site of the Benedictine Abbey of St. John the Divine. St. John called the beloved disciple of Christ. The cathedral is famous for its beautiful frescoes in 18., Reflecting the time of discovery of the relics of St. Barnabas, who was the founder of an independent Cyprus tserkvi.V 1720, Metropolitan Sylvester subjected church renovation and turned to his residence, but after that it got the status of a cathedral.

Compared with the great cathedrals of Europe, this church is small in size and conformation. But its interior is simply magnificent. Built in the Gothic style with arched vaults, but without the dome, inside the cathedral its long walls become an ideal place for murals. They were created in 1736-1756 GG, in the years of the reign of Archbishop Filoteosa. Topics frescoes were largely inspired by the biblical story, and on the south wall paints a picture of "The discovery of the tomb of St. Barnabas at Salamis."

Striking splendor and carved iconostasis, covered with gold leaf. 4 large icons in it written by John Cornaro in 1795 and 1797 years. Cathedral of St. John - the only church in Nicosia, preserved in full all its internal painting.

Address: Plateia Archiepiskopou Kiprianou (in the Palace of the Archbishop).
The cathedral is open for visits from Monday to Friday from 9.00 12.00 and up to 14.00 16.00. On Saturdays - with up to 9.00 12.00.

House Dragoman Hadigeorgakis Kornesios

Hadzhigeorgakis Kornesios at the turn of 18-19 century. was the intermediary between the Greek Cypriots and the Turkish authorities, and one of his duties was to collect taxes in favor of the Ottoman Empire.

Built Kornesios house was the most luxurious and beautiful in Nicosia. In 1809g. Turks Kornesios accused of fraud and executed, but the house was for the relatives. In 1979, he was bequeathed to the city. Furnishing the house is preserved. Particularly impressive Divan room. In addition to furniture, exhibited icons, ceramics, coins of the period, kitchen utensils. In the far left corner of the yard - a Turkish bath, used until now.

The Cyprus Postal Museum

Stamps are often called the country's business cards. With these tiny colored miniatures pasted on e-mail correspondence, it has the unique opportunity to learn about the history and culture of the countries located in the most remote corners of the globe.

Researchers studying the history of postal communication in Cyprus, found that in the period from 1353 to 1845 years all mail correspondence was sent from the island mainly by Venetian courts. From this fairly long period of time to the present day, only a small number of letters have been preserved, most of them sealed by the personal seals of the sender. In the period between 1845 - 1871 years in Larnaca, where foreign embassies and embassies were located at that time, the only Austrian post office was on the island, and from 1871 another one was added to 1878, but already in Nicosia. Here, the Turkish liaison office functioned, leaving fifteen shaded stamps with the inscription "KIBRIS".

The appearance of an island in the British 1878 year was marked by the introduction into use of new printing plates. The first stamp of the island of Cyprus released 1880 year - from now on you can calculate the philatelic history of Cyprus.

At first, the British used the brand, which was depicted a close-up profile of Queen Victoria. They are in bold black, after manufacturing, was applied to the inscription "CYPRUS". (Today these brands are of great rarity and value for philatelists from different countries.) More recently replaced the mark

m came entirely new postal marks which were published again in the UK, but especially for Cyprus. This lasted until the year 1960 when the island gained independence. Since that time, all the inscriptions on stamps of Cyprus began to appear in three languages: Greek, Turkish and English.

Certain communications and postal activities existed between Russia and Cyprus. In order to further strengthen the existing community between almost the Republic of Cyprus and the Russian Federation, it was decided to issue a total 1996 year series of stamps Cyprus and Russia. The theme for the creative union served the same for both countries The Christian Orthodox religion. The series consisted of four brands: the image of the icon of Our Lady of Iberia, Stavrovouni Monastery, icon of St. Nicholas Gate and the Resurrection (Iberian Gate).

Cyprus Postal Museum and philately is located in Nicosia and is located on the first floor of an old two-storey mansion. This is quite a small museum founded in 1981 year. His exhibition presents a great many diverse material on the development of e-mail message to the Venetian period in Cyprus, from the XV century. The museum's collections are replenished with new models every year. In the halls of the museum in chronological order placed samples of stamps and philatelic material that shows the history of Cyprus.

In the first room of the museum presented material relating to the period of British rule in Cyprus. You can see a collection of old Cypriot stamps with the portrait of Queen Victoria of England, they created the word "Cyprus". There also exists a series of the first Cypriot stamps with the image of 1928 Historic Places and dates relating to different periods of the history of Cyprus.

Another room of the museum presents an exhibition of envelopes and stamps, which were released after the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Cyprus. Here you can also see and modern brand with a display of recent significant events of the island. Through collections of stamps of various albums can be traced very different events that happened on the island. The museum has a superb collection of stamps featuring famous figures of history and culture of Cyprus, as you can see the mark printed with the sights and monuments of the island.

In the halls of the museum and sample letters, old envelopes, a lot of old newspapers, journals and unique cards, you can consider the postal bags, sealed with wax, postal scales, philatelic books and magazines of different years.

Visiting Cyprus Postal Museum and Philatelic, you get a lot of pleasure from viewing its exhibits and learn a lot about this mysterious island of Cyprus.

AddressNicosia, Street St. Sava, 3 B (Agiou Savva 3b Street).
Phone: + 22 304 711, 22 760 522.

The Cyprus Railway Museum

Although there are no railways in Cyprus, there is a railway museum. The fact is that in 1951-52 years. The Cypriot railway was closed due to low payback. And it appeared during the time of colonial dependence of Cyprus from England - in 1905 year, and totaled 39 stations and stops. She connected Famagusta with Nicosia and Morfu. From 1905 to 1951, 115 7 348 passengers were transported by 643-kilometer railway. But the main emphasis of the colonial authorities was not on transporting people and mail, but for delivering cargoes to the capital from Famagusta that arrived by sea, therefore the railway played an important role in the economic growth of the country.

To find and collect all the exhibits, it took a year of work. The museum consists of six rooms: three large and three small. All rooms are equipped with air conditioning system, so that in a comfortable environment, you will be able to see the exhibits. In addition, the museum can be found 25-DVD-minute film about the history of the establishment and operation of the Cyprus government's railway.

In the first (big) room, you'll see two dummy Cypriot conductors in winter uniform.

In addition, the exhibition includes photographs of the first half of the XX century, as well as drawings of the stations, the station clock and the bell, which announced departure of the last train 31 1951 year in December. In the inner courtyard of the museum exhibited a large wagon Cypriot government's railway.

In the courtyard of the museum will draw your attention to an elegant bright red locomotive and blue-black Trolley put to eternal "parking" in the yard of the museum. The museum has more interactivity: you can climb into the car and sit in the place of the driver.

By the way, the Ministry of Communications and Works of Cyprus has announced an international tender for a feasibility study for the establishment of the railway transportation system that will link together the capital -Nikosiyu - and the largest coastal cities of the country: Limassol and Larnaca. By April 2011, the winning company will have to present their project, which allows to answer the question whether and to what extent feasible from a technical and economic point of view the construction of the railway on the island.

To finance the preparation of the project will be the government of the Republic of Cyprus and the Foundation for the trans-European transport system of the EU on an equal footing. Its cost is estimated at 286 thousand euros. So, it is quite possible that the museum still replenished with new items for future exposure.

Museum Hours: weekdays from 10.00 13.00 and up to 16.00 18.00. Saturday - up to 10.00 14.00. Day off - Sunday. Location: Nicosia, st. Vyronos, 32 (the museum is located near the bookstore Old Bridge) .Tel .: 22-718605. If you are thinking of the museum on Saturday, it is best to call in advance.

Cyprus Museum Treasures

Here you can find jewelry, religious items, dishes of silver produced at the end of 19 - in the early 20.

Cyprus Museum of jewelry (Cyprus Jewellers Museum) is located in the capital of Cyprus - Nicosia, in the quarter Gitonia huskies. There are exhibited made in national style jewelry, made in the late XIX - early XX centuries., Religious items, silver utensils, old instruments.

Address: 7-9 Praxippou (in the quarter Laiki Gitonia).
Phone.: 45-72-78.
Hours of operationFrom Monday to Friday to 10.00 16.00.
Admission is free.

Church Chrysaliniotissa

The oldest Byzantine church in Nicosia, built in 1450 by order of Helena Palaeologus, the wife of one of the members of the genus Lusignan. A beautiful collection of Byzantine icons. The church is located a few hundred meters to the north of Famagusta Gate.

Omeriye Mosque

The mosque was built on the site of a ruined Augustinian church on the orders of Mustafa Pasha, who headed in 1570, troops of the Ottoman Empire invaded Cyprus. Mustafa Pasha thought that here was buried the prophet Omar, whose name and had a mosque.

Omeriye Mosque in Nicosia was built in 1571, on the site of the Church of St. Mary, which belonged to the Order of St. Augustine. Church destroyed by order of Mustafa Pasha, who headed in 1570, troops of the Ottoman Empire invaded Cyprus. Mustafa Pasha thought that here was buried the prophet Omar, whose name and had a mosque. It was destroyed not only the church but the whole monastery, to which it relates. Of the remaining parts of the Augustinian monastery and built a mosque. This is evidenced by the Gothic portico, badly damaged during the siege of 1570

The square chapel XIV c., The tower which was later turned into a minaret survived several sets of fragments of original construction. It is proved that before in this place were Roman, and then Frankish burial, and presumably, the tomb of the Caliph Omar.

The mosque consists of several rooms, a height greater than two meters. All rooms are in elegant medieval style and decorated with various drawings, telling about these or other events. In the northeastern part of the monument are found the remains of buildings of the late Renaissance period. With regard to the tombstones of monks and abbots who lived in the monastery, they were transported to the fort of Limassol.

From the balconies of the mosque a magnificent view of the whole city, especially in the occupied zone, located on the other side of the demarcation pine.

Address: Plateia Tillirias.
The mosque is open for viewing every day from Monday to Saturday to 10.00 12.30 and 13.30 to 15.30.

Church Tripiotis

The building of Franco-Byzantine style was built in 1695 This church is known for its iconostasis, whose width and silver frame icons distinguish it from others.

Famous for its iconostasis Tripiotis the church in the capital of Cyprus - Nicosia, with the Leventis Museum.

Tripiotis Church in Nicosia was built in 1695 built by order of Archbishop Germanos II. The church was built in an interesting Franco-Byzantine style. In addition to the unusually wide iconostasis, the church is different from other lavish interior. Silver salaries of icons indicate that the early church attended very wealthy people living in Nicosia.

Church Phaneromeni

Built in 1872 was here in the marble mausoleum svostochnoy side of the church, the remains of Cypriot priests executed by the Turks in 1821 on charges of conspiracy.

One of the oldest and most beautiful churches in Cyprus - the church of Faneromeni - located in the heart of old Nicosia, close to the "green line" separating the Cypriot capital.

According to historical sources, the time of its creation 1300 year, when the island was ruled by Frankish kings of Lusignan. Once upon a time this place was a convent dedicated to Panagia Faneromeni. Its inmates were known as skilled seamstress. After all, even from ancient times, the island was known for beautiful embroidery, manufacture of high quality fabrics and gold thread, which embroidered silk clothing. Work monastery of nuns brought great income to allocate substantial funds for charitable purposes.

The name of the monastery, as well as the church, built in 1792 year, associated with the acquisition of miraculous icon of the Virgin. This event occurred during construction. The word "fanerosike" means "was", "Faneromeni" - "phenomenon."

Turks who invaded Cyprus in 1571 year, wanted to turn the monastery into a mosque, but there appointed imams (priests) with some fatal sequence suddenly died. Finally, giving up the idea, superstitious Christian invaders left the monastery alone.

The name of the Phanereni church is connected with the opening in 1859 of the first school on the island for girls. In those years, the post of Archbishop was occupied by Makarios I, who in every way contributed to the creation of the school, allocating for this purpose considerable funds from the budget of the Metropolia, and also using the charitable funds of the capital's monasteries and churches. The archbishop wrote to the representatives of the Cypriot clergy living abroad who requested donation of money for the needs of all schools in Nicosia. His appeals were heard and soon considerable sums were received from a number of monasteries of St. Athos, and also from the Patriarchate of Jerusalem from Metropolitan Filimon.

In 1872-1873 years. after major construction work takes Phaneromeni church familiar to us appearance. In 1938 year to her parked bell tower, for which specially in England were cast bells.

One of the characteristic features of the church - its interior decoration and especially the fine carving of the iconostasis, dating from year 1659, reproducing scenes from the Old Testament, as well as a wealth of ancient icons and church painting. Decorated the iconostasis the icon of Panagia Faneromeni is being kept in the Byzantine Museum of the Archbishop Makarios III Foundation in Nicosia. The temple is a copy of it, established in 1924, the famous Cypriot artist Adamantisom Diamantis. The icon is placed in the silver-gilt salary made in 1851 year.

Many famous Cypriot masters worked on creating the present appearance of the temple. The Holy Servant and the Archbishop's throne are the work of the famous wood carver A. Papadopoulos. The ambon is made by M.Taliodoros, and the icons depicting the four evangelists belong to the brush of A.Diamantis. Most of the icons are placed in gold-plated and silvered salaries, artfully crafted by goldsmiths P. Kolokos and G.Eleteriadis. The real decoration of the temple - a magnificent wall painting - a unique work of one of the first Cypriot artists-professionals Ioannis Kissonergis, depicting in the dome of the temple of Christ the Almighty and the four evangelists.

As mentioned above, the icon of the Virgin is in the Byzantine Museum. During the last ten years, under the auspices of the Archbishop of Cyprus, the original is brought for several days to the church for a sacred liturgy in honor of the Mother of God. Written in the XIV century icon size 118 at 83 cm was the most valuable treasure of the monastery of Panagia Phanereni. The well-known Cypriot historian Archimandrite Kyprianos wrote: "In Nicosia, there are two miraculous icons: Phanereni and Alinjetissa, the oldest of which is Phanereni." Engaged in the study of this issue G. Sotiriu believes that the icon refers to the XII century, and in the XVI-XVIII centuries. it was restored. On the frame framing the face of the Virgin, there are images of six hymnographers, as well as citizens praying for the sending of rain. An unknown iconographer captured Panagia Phanereni holding a baby Christ on a golden background. The right hand of the Virgin Mary points to the Lord. The faces of the Virgin and of Christ are given in close-up, which allows one to better grasp the strict expression of their faces. Similar images refer to the type of icons "Hodegetria" (pointing).

Archbishop's Palace

Construction of a three-storey palace in neo-Byzantine style, was completed in 1960 Here is the residence of the supreme spiritual entity of Cyprus - Archbishop. Before the palace is a monument to Archbishop Makarios III, the first president of an independent Cyprus. On the territory of the archbishopric is Cathedral of St. John, the Byzantine Museum, the Museum of Folk Art, Art Gallery.

In the center of Nicosia, at Archbishop Kyprianou Square, it is one of the most popular places in the capital of Cyprus - Archbishop's Palace. Despite its Venetian appearance, it was built recently. Its construction lasted from 1956 1960 of the year. A completed in 1961 year - one year after receipt of the independence of Cyprus.

Built a new palace at the Archbishop Makarios III, whose bronze statue was installed next to the building in 1987 year. Also, the walls of the palace you can see a bust of Archbishop Kyprianou. This religious leader was hanged by the Turks in 1820 year.

The two-storey building of the archbishop's palace in neo-Byzantine style are the offices and residence of the archbishop of the diocese. At the same time it was built by the Byzantine Museum and Library Archdiocese. Nearby is the old archbishop's palace, which now houses a museum of folk art and the museum of the national struggle.

The new palace preserved intact bedroom Archbishop Makarios and his heart is stored in a special container. But they can be seen only in special cases.

During the military coup in 1974, the palace suffered significant damage, but today no trace of the events thanks to a careful restoration, carried out in 80-ies of XX century.

Area attractions Nicosia

Village Dali (the ancient city of Idalion)

Idalion is an ancient city-state, on the site of which today is the village of Dali. Studies of the ruins of the ancient city have opened up the possibility for scientists to restore some facts from the life that boiled here three millennia ago. As we now know, Idalion not only became the first Cypriot state with a democratic structure, but also created its own school of art. The city of the distant past still excites the minds of historians and Romantic souls. Being fanned by legends, it still retains many secrets. Here worshiped Athena and Apollo, and it was here, according to legend, the young Adonis, the beloved of Aphrodite, perished.

In February 2008 in the village of Dali (Nicosia District) opened local museum Idalion - one of the city-kingdoms in ancient times existed on the island. The basis for the creation of the museum were the significant archaeological finds made by the Department of Antiquities and a number of foreign missions in recent years.

Visitors to the museum have the opportunity to get acquainted not only with exhibits found in the XIX-XX centuries, but discovered during the recent expeditions. In addition to the necessary scientific comments and exhibits are accompanied by rich illustrative material.

The museum consists of two halls: the first - the documentary material about the history of the area, excavations, as well as photographic material of the most valuable finds, which are in foreign museums. In the second room contains an inscription indicating the capture of the kingdom of Idalion, part of the archives of city management, tombstones, samples of pottery and household items.

An interesting fact is that the creators of the museum, given the fact that the excavations in the ancient Idalion still underway, the building is constructed in such a way that if it should be found in the future finds, it can be easily moved to another location.

Many artifacts found in the region are now in major museums around the world and are the subject of study and admiration. In the premises of the museum is planned to hold lectures and events. In addition, visitors will be continuously screened a film about the area, and archeological excavations made during their findings. Construction of the museum allows for the development of significant new tourist destination in the interest of Dali and surrounding villages.

Creating local and specialized museums is part of a comprehensive program of the Department of Antiquities, aimed at the development of a number of areas.

The village of Pera Chorio

19 km south of Nicosia. Church of the Holy Apostles in the village of Pera Chorio keeps some beautiful frescoes in 12.

Panagia Chrysospiliotissa

Located near the village of Deftera in 11 km southwest of Nicosia. Dedicated to the "Lady Golden Cave." Catacomb Church structure indicates that it dates from the early Christian period. Every year in August 15 arranged religious festival in the name day of the Virgin Mary.

Church of the Holy Mother of God Golden cave (Panagia Chrysospiliotissa) is located near the village of Deftera in 11 km southwest of Nicosia. According to legend, the villagers once said in the depths of the mysterious cave flickering light. Plucking up courage, they got inside and found a unique two-sided icon of the Virgin, which supposedly was written by the hand of the Apostle Luke.

However, there is another version, associated with its acquisition, from which it follows that once, during a hunt, the Turkish Grand Vizier Kamil Pasha, fell from a cliff and crevice glimpsed the glowing face of the Blessed Virgin. Considering that his miraculous escape, he is obliged icon of the Virgin, Kamil Pasha, gave the Church of Panagia Chrysospiliotissa vast land.

Unfortunately, when and by whom was created the cave monastery, is unknown. It consists of three cut into the rock small rooms, connected by a narrow corridor. Scientists believe that once there was a small working monastery. Most recently, the outer walls of the church strengthened, and it is a long staircase with many steps.

Icon of the Holy Mother of God Golden cave is still kept in the church of St. Nicholas, in the center of the village of Deftera. 15 August each year on the day of the Blessed Virgin Mary religious fairs are held here, and the icon is made in the ancient cave temple.

Tamassos

The village politicians, 20 km southwest of Lefkosia. Tamassos represented the wealthy city-state known in the ancient copper mines in Cyprus his. Excavations have discovered royal tombs and copper workshops associated with the cult of Aphrodite-Astarte.

In 21 km. to the south-west of the capital Nicosia, near the village of politicians, are the ruins of Tamassos - city-states of ancient Cyprus.

Last Tamassos was a major religious and industrial center, is developed copper mines. As the excavation, the development of the settlement reached its peak in the period from the 1 500 500 years before. BC. e., it is expected that the development of copper began around the third millennium BC. e.

It existed at the same time with such well-known city-states as Idalion, Ledra, Curio, Tamassos already from 2500 BC. was quite large and significant for those times the industrial center of the Mediterranean. His fame in the ancient world is evidenced by the fact that several references to him can be found in the Homeric Odyssey. The name of the city is also present in the inscription, dated 673 year BC, which lists the ten Cypriot city-states that paid tribute to the Assyrians. At the end of IV century BC. Thamassos for a short time was under the rule of the Phoenicians. Then Alexander of Macedon gave the city to the king of Salamis, who helped him in capturing Tire. In 312 BC. Thamassos became part of Ptolemaic Egypt, sharing the fate of other small cities-states of Cyprus.

The first excavations on the site of the ancient city were carried out at the end of the 19th century by the German self-taught archeologist M.Onefalsh-Richter (these are considered unscientific excavations). Then three tombs were discovered. Unfortunately, one of them was dismantled by local residents who used stones for construction needs. Two other tombs, located in close proximity to each other, were much more fortunate. In their architecture and splendor of decoration they are close to the "Tombs of Tombs" of Paphos and bear the same name. Dating from the VI century BC, they are in very good condition and to the delight of tourists, look great in the photographs. Skilfully carved from stone by ancient masters, the tombs of Tamassos resemble windowsills and slopes of the roofs of a wooden dwelling of that era.

The first tomb - the biggest: in addition to the two burial chambers, it includes several other facilities. In one of the burial chambers is a huge sarcophagus, which measures m 2,42 1,26 m.

The second tomb, which has only one burial chamber, similar to the first, but its decoration is much inferior to her.

After independence in 1960 in Cyprus began intensive archaeological survey. In 70-ies he worked in Tamassos German archaeological expedition, led by Professor G. Buhholnom that managed to find the remains of houses and household items.

The real luck for archaeologists was the discovery of fragments of the temple of Aphrodite Astarte. It is significant that most of the objects found in the sanctuary was made of copper. This is indicative of the fact that in the priests of the temple of Aphrodite Tamassos is the leading political force of the state and therefore kept him considerable reserves of copper.

Unfortunately, carried out in Tamassos extensive excavations would provide additional and perhaps sensational data about the life of the ancient inhabitants of this realm, their culture and religion, now it seems impossible. The fact that the center Tamassos and, hence, its public and religious buildings are located deep in the ground just below the village of politicians and the monastery of St. Iraklidisa. Therefore, archaeological survey conducted only in areas free from modern developments.

Monastery of St. Heracleides

In 20 kilometers from Nicosia near the settlement policy is the convent, named after the Holy Martyr Heracleides Bishop Tamasskogo.

Thamassos in the first years of a new era was densely populated: rich copper mines were the reason. Here from Palestine, King Herod the Great sent many Jews to obtain copper. They also constituted the commune of the first proselytes (newly converted Christians), who often had encounters with local residents and who, worshiping the numerous pagan gods, lavished their generous gifts on the altars. It was here that the baptized by the apostles and erected by them in the order of the church Irakledis began the construction of the Christian church. And approximately to 100 year here there was a monastery that has defined a role of Tamassos as the most ancient center of Christianity in Cyprus.

Meeting in 45 year from the Nativity of Christ with the apostles Paul and Barnabas during their missionary journey around the island, Herakleidiy received baptism from the apostle Paul and, according to legend, was ordained Bishop of Tamaska ​​(and now near the monastery archaeological excavations of the ancient city-state are conducted Thamassos). Iraklidy settled in a cave, where he arranged a small temple and cell. At the age of about 60 he accepted a martyr's death from the Gentiles and was buried in his cave. The first stone church on this place appeared already in the II century. In the V century it was rebuilt, and in this form it has survived to our days. In the center of the temple in the floor is a laz that is closed for the duration of the service by a wooden lid. He leads to the cave under the altar. Here was the first throne and here Iraklidius himself was buried.

The nuns became hostesses of the holy place in 1180, when Bishop Nylos of Tamassos, the former abbot of the famous Maheras monastery, who later became Archbishop of Cyprus, established a nunnery here. Wife-desertess humbly endured all the trials, only twice for all the centuries-old history of the monastery yielding to her monastic brotherhood. Waves raging in the world of passions did not spare the holy place. The monastery was destroyed by the Arabs in 806, it often fell into desolation during the Middle Ages, reborn again (in 1450, 1588 and 1773 years), again was destroyed during the sad events of 1821 year, for some time it contained sheep, then healed wounds from the blows of English bayonets, which damaged the icons of the monastery church.

Despite all the disasters that have occurred with the monastery, the icon survived. Two of the iconostasis, created in different periods of the complicated history of the monastery, the church is decorated with Southern - XVII century and the north, founded in 1774 year. Survived truly unique, yet written in 1611, the icon of Our Lady and St. John the Baptist. With mural on the south wall of the temple, created in the X century, still looking at you the Christ, the reigning Bible where written: "I am the light of the universe."

Maybe fortitude nuns and monks who carried his "strazhbu" in the monastery of St. Iraklidisa gave icons created back in the XVII-XVIII centuries in the well-known at the time the icon workshop of the monastery, and then generously razdarennye to other churches and monasteries of Cyprus. Only the names of the ancient painters called to mind an involuntary trembling: Luca and nectars, Laurence and Filaret wrote here in likah sacred history.

Museum of Byzantine Art in Nicosia today retains the treasures of the monastery - the icon and three murals, miraculously survived from the former rich décor of the abbey church, the walls of which were decorated with paintings. Skull and bones of St. Iraklidisa as sacred relics are stored in two gold-plated reliquary hidden in an arched niche of the church. Holy Iraklidisu drawn dated XV century of dedication in the south aisle of the abbey church.

The sarcophagus of St. Irakleidis, as well as the sarcophagus of his successor to St. Mnason, one of the 70 apostles of Christ, is here, in a monastery, in an unusual mausoleum of the 14th century located in the eastern part of the southern portico, which used to be the southern side-chapel of the ancient basilica of the 5th century. place. True, many believe that the true burial place of St. Irakleidis is under the mausoleum floor. You can get there through the hatchway or through another door that is behind the church apse. Now in the northern side-chapel near the iconostasis to the left of the royal gates under the miraculous icon Iraklidiya is installed for worship its honest head in a silver ark, made in the form of a holy miter. Nearby in another ark is stored a particle of the relics of the apostle Barnabas. The relics themselves remained in the occupied territory in the monastery of St. Barnabas, located in the vicinity of Salamis.

As a result of repression by the Turkish authorities, the monastery came to desolation and in the middle of the XIX century it closed and existed as a regular parish. Only in 1962 year, with the blessing of Archbishop Makarios III, the monastery was reborn as a woman. In the second half of 1990 a new stone church dedicated to John the Baptist was built here. In addition to obedience in the temples and in the household, the nuns are engaged in icon painting, embroidery, weaving of beads, beekeeping, the preparation of oriental sweets. From 1962, the abode was ruled by the abbess of Haritya, who died in 2000 year. At present, Mother Superior Prodromy is abbess.

Village Fikardu

1,5 km south of the village Gurry (Machaira-Nicosia road, through the clergy). The whole village has been declared an ancient monument in order to preserve the wonderful wooden buildings and folk architecture in 18. House Katsiniora and Achilles Dmitry, some parts of which are in 16., Have been restored as bright examples of rural architecture, for which he was awarded the Europa Nostra award in 1987 city

Among other things, there are rural museums in Cyprus, one of the most interesting is the rural museum of Ficardo. The village of Ficardo is located at 40 km south-west of Nicosia. The settlement of Ficardo was always small: according to statistics, in 1881 there was 64 resident, 122 - in 1931, and 120 - in 1946. With 1960, the population of the village began to decline rapidly and today the actual number of permanent residents is 6 people . Despite the fact that Ficardo is considered "uninhabited", the village is an important monument of traditional Cypriot settlements. The architectural style and the ancient way of life in the village remained unchanged - Ficardo did not touch modern trends.

In 1978, the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus launched a campaign to save the village, aimed at preserving and restoring the unique appearance of the village. The whole village has been declared Fikardu "ancient monument" in order to preserve part of the original wooden buildings and the traditional architecture of the houses XVI - XVII centuries.

The houses of Catsinioros and Ahileassa Dimitri (which are a rural museum), partly related to the 16th century, have been restored and serve as a good example of rural architecture. These monuments of rural architecture in 1986 received the prize "Europa Nostra" (Europa Nostra is a coordinating organization for the protection of the European cultural heritage working in close cooperation with the European Commission, the Council of Europe and UNESCO, whose main task is to promote the most significant cultural objects heritage of our continent and the importance of the work done to preserve them through the award of honorable awards).

Apart from the fact that in this mountain village, you will plunge into the atmosphere of this antiquity, the village more and located in a very picturesque area. If you come here in early March, it should let the blooming almonds.

Hours Agriculture Museum Fikardu:
Tuesday - Friday from 9: 00 to 16: 00 (summer with 9: 30 to 16: 30);
Saturday 9: 00 to 15: 30 (summer with 9: 30 to 16: 00);
Sunday 10: 30 to 14: 00 (summer with 10: 00 to 13: 30).

Monastery of Our Lady Machaira

In 40 km south of Nicosia is Machaira Monastery, founded in the year 1148. This is a typical example of a fortified monastery. In the XVII century during worship here to read the prayer "For our Great Lady Russian Empress Catherine and Her royal house."

Monastery of Our Lady Machaira is the second largest monastery after monastery of Our Lady of Kykkos. The monastery is located in the area of ​​the Troodos mountains at an altitude of 870 meters above sea level in a picturesque area on the slopes of Mount Kionia. It was founded in the XII century at the expense of the Emperor Manuel Comnenus, granted the monks Procopius and Ignatius, who visited Constantinople.

After Ignatius abbot of the monastery became a monk Nile, who wrote the charter for this coenobite tsarist and Stavropegic monastery. Accurate and complete title of this statute is that "Rules located on the island of Cyprus revered king's monastery of St. Mary, anoint Machaira."

The miraculous icon of Our Lady of Maheras is considered one of the 70 icons written by Luke the Evangelist. The icon was secretly delivered to Cyprus from Asia Minor by an unknown hermit during the time of iconoclasm (730-840). The acquisition of the icon happened after the arrival of monks-hermits Neophytos and Ignatios from Palestine to Cyprus. Divine Providence opened the entrance to the cave hidden in the bushes. According to legend, they had a knife in their hands, with which they cut the bushes to get the icon. As a result, the icon was called "Maheriotissa" ("maheri" in Greek - a knife). The monastery was founded on the very spot where the icon was found. For the history of his existence, Maheras suffered two fires (in 1530 and 1892), during which all was burnt to the ground, but the icon of the Mother of God remained unscathed. Even now it is the main value and pride of the monastery.

In addition to the release of the knife, helped find the icon of Our Lady, there are several versions explaining the name of the monastery, one of them tells of the landowner by the name of Machaira, the second - on the cutting-piercing wind, penetrating to the bone, and the third - the growing in surrounding forests grass that could cut the unwary traveler.

As the monk Nile mentions in his typewriter, published in 1756 in Venice by Ephraim of Athens, who also described the monastery of Kykkos, the name Maheras has different etymologies. The monk Neal writes: "Either by the name of the one who first owned this mountain and called it Maheras, either because the mountain is steep and steep, or because an icon of the Mother of God was found hidden in a cave (perhaps because of iconoclasm) and a knife was inserted in front of her, why now those who beg alms usually carry a knife. " Since "we do not know exactly what the reason for this naming is, everyone has the right to believe how he wishes."

The monastery Machaira were two large fire: in 1570 and 1892 years. These fires destroyed the main part of the monastery, which was painted with frescoes.

Machairas Monastery of Our Lady is one of three stavropigiyskih (ie, self-managed and independent) monasteries in Cyprus. Construction of the church was completed in 1905 year. Carved wooden iconostasis refers to 1919 year. Mosaic in front of the church dedicated to the history of the founding of the monastery. The gallery on the top floor of the illustrated text story captured Machaira.

The monastery played an important role during the Turkish armed struggle against British rule (1955-1959 years.). Undoubtedly, Machaira was one of the pillars of religious and national identity Cypriots. In addition, he was an important center of care and support to the population. During the Ottoman occupation, the monastery was located in a Greek school.

Monks of the monastery of Maheras Gregory and Ignatius brought their life on the altar of the Fatherland and the Church. Together with the eleven monks of the Monastery of the Virgin, the Kyantariotissa sacrificed their lives along the river Pedieos, resisting oppression and Catholic heretical beliefs. National hero Archbishop Cyprian, who suffered martyrdom along with the rest of the hierarchs and notable people of the island 9 July 1821, was previously a monk of the monastery of Maheras. He was also closely associated with the monastery of the Mother of God of Maheras, hieromonk Ioannicius, who rebelled against the Turks in July 1832 in the village of St. Elijah in Karpasia, who was later captured in the village of Prastio Ammochosta and that year was executed in Nicosia.

But in recent times, 3 1957 year in March, deputy commander of the liberation movement against the British colonialists (EOKA) Grigoris Afksentiu, from the village of Lisi, died as a hero near the monastery, where his secret hideout. Afksentiu hiding in a monastery under the guise of Archimandrite Chrysanthos, but in the spring, the British 1957 tracked him down and tried to arrest. He resisted and was killed in March 3 when the British set fire to his hideout. Now it is decorated with wreaths and Greek flag.

Near the monastery Grigoris Afksentiu monument. He captured bronze in the form of EOKA guerrilla. Just beyond the gates of the monastery is a small museum dedicated to the memory of the hero.

The monastery has a small shop with the Orthodox books, icons, where you can buy incense, kuritelnitsy, as well as eco-friendly products made by the monks - mountain honey, olive oil, herbs, jam, apple cider vinegar and more. The road to the monastery is through a picturesque mountain village - Guri and Fikardu. On the cloister a beautiful view of the surrounding mountains.

Village Peristerona

27 km. On the way to Nicosia - Troodos. There founded Church of Saints Barnabas and Hilarion. Supposedly was built in the early 10 in., Is an outstanding example of Byzantine architecture, with five domes forming a cross. Next to the church stands the Turkish mosque of Peristerona, the evidence of a long and peaceful coexistence of the villagers (and in general, Cyprus) - Greek Cypriots and Turkish origin.

At 30 km west of Nicosia, on the banks of the Peristerona River, the village was modestly sheltered. So modest that she does not even have her name. Therefore, the generously flowing river with her own name shared it. The village of Peristerona is famous for the peaceful neighborhood of the Orthodox Church and the mosque. Tourists have such unusual, but symbolic neighborhoods cause some kind of pathos, solemn sensations: it is unclear from what, but pride and grandeur are simply bursting, fancifully mixed with a sense of responsibility for something, a feeling of tenderness for something, a sense of sorrow for about something. Probably, therefore, according to the visitors who visited here, the village of Peristerona is the best place for memories of youth.

Kakopetria

This lies at the northern foothills of the Troodos village is particularly loved by the residents of the capital Nicosia that the weekend coming to Kakopetria. In order to at least temporarily its green shady streets forget about reigning in the city heat. It has everything to relax: a few small hotels, beautiful nature and fine restaurants in which one of the most popular dishes is a delicious sauce cooked trout (in Greek - pestrofa).

In the center of the village is the "bad stone" which gave the name to the village. According to legend, in ancient times to marry the couple had three times run around the stone. One day another pair of newlyweds ran a stone fell dead - since the stone and they called the "bad".

Close to Kakopetria there is another point of interest - the church of Agios Nikolaos tis Stegis (Agios Nikolaos tis Stegis), built in 11 century. This is typical of the Byzantine church of that era. Decorated with frescoes.

Galata - a world cultural heritage by UNESCO.

The village called Galata is located just one kilometer north of the village of Kakopetria. Galata's attractions are 4 churches, two of which - Panagia Podithou and Panagia Theotokos, were built in the 16 century. In the murals of these churches, not only Byzantine, but also Venetian motifs are read, which automatically brings them to the list of attractions that are of special interest for science in general, and for individual connoisseurs. The Church of Panagia Poditou is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which in itself means a lot.

Church of the Holy Cross (Agiasmati) in Platanistisa

According to legend, in this quiet and secluded place, where giant pine trees break into the blue of the sky, refugees from Agiasmati, not far from Constantinople, founded in the memory of the land of the fathers the monastery of the same name. They, in all likelihood, brought with them from Asia Minor a manuscript containing colorful miniatures that told about St. Helen, her search and finding the True Cross. This legend, popular in the West during the time of the Crusades, was not so widespread in the Byzantine world. How the fate of the monastery developed, we do not know. But at the beginning of the 18th century, when monk Vasiliy Barsky traveled through Cyprus, the monastic life in Agyasmati was already dying out. And to this day history has preserved only the ancient Byzantine church, unique in architectural and artistic terms, which today is protected by UNESCO's international organization.

Church of Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Agiasmati) is located in the village of Platanistasa (area of ​​Nicosia) - in the east of the Troodos Mountains, just below the village of Lagoudera. This church - the only surviving structure of a small monastery, which is mentioned in the inscription above the southern entrance to the temple.

According to legend, in this quiet and secluded place, where giant pine trees break into the blue of the sky, refugees from Agiasmati, not far from Constantinople, founded in the memory of the land of the fathers the monastery of the same name. They, in all likelihood, brought with them from Asia Minor a manuscript containing colorful miniatures that told about St. Helen, her search and finding the True Cross. This legend, popular in the West during the time of the Crusades, was not so widespread in the Byzantine world. How the fate of the monastery developed, we do not know. But at the beginning of the 18th century, when monk Vasiliy Barsky traveled through Cyprus, the monastic life in Agyasmati was already dying out. And to this day history has preserved only the ancient Byzantine church, unique in architectural and artistic terms, which today is protected by UNESCO's international organization.

The Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross was built in the early Venetian period, at the very end of the XV century. All its walls, both internal and external, decorated luxurious frescoes. To protect them from the vagaries of the weather, the church was surrounded on four sides by a portico wider on the west side, where the narthex (lobby) usually settled, and erected a steep wooden roof covered with flat tiles, creating a unique structure that kept under its roof a beautiful and unique, not only for Cyprus, but for the whole world, a museum of frescoes. In the central and the only nave, which is traditionally crowned in the east by a semicircular apse, three entrances lead from the covered gallery.

The church was built at the expense of the priest Petar Petaria and his wife of Pepany and painted on their funds by Philip Gul (a Syrian by birth, considered in those years one of the best artists) or in 1494, or 1505. He was painted by the icon painter Philip Gul, except for the outer part of the western wall, on which the "Second Coming" is depicted. In the first half of the XX century. this fresco was rewritten and its composition changed. The uniqueness of the murals of the temple is also in the fact that in his work the artist used three different artistic styles. Philip Hoole, who is well acquainted with Western painting, tried to reconcile Byzantine and Western traditions with the local flavor.

Exhibitions of painting can be divided into two cycles: 30 scenes from the New Testament are located in the top tier of the nave, and in the bottom of the image are located 30 saints.

To the left of the altar in the northern niche is the Holy Cross, to which the church is dedicated. All the niche space and every corner of the arch occupy miniature scenes. They tell the story of the finding of St. Helen the Life-giving Cross. According to legend, Queen Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine, deeply honoring the Cross of the Lord and eager to find it, in 326 year went to Jerusalem. Having gathered all the Jewish people, she tried to find out where the Cross was buried, on which Jesus Christ was crucified. But no one remembered that. Angry, the queen promised to severely punish the silent. And then people pointed to Judas, in whose family the legend of the Holy Cross was carefully preserved. But the Jew stubbornly denied the truth of what he said. Then the queen ordered to throw him into a deep pit and leave without food. On the third day, Judas decided to tell Elena that during the prayer at Calvary, enlightenment came to him, and he felt where the True Cross was buried. In this place, Saint Elena organized the first archaeological excavations of the Christian relic. Then they found three crosses and a plaque with the words: "Jesus of Nazareth, King of Judah." The finds were solemnly handed over to the queen. To find out which of them is the True, the crosses in turn began to bring to the deceased woman. And when they laid the Cross of Christ, a miracle happened - the woman came to life. Judas believed in God and accepted Christianity, later he became Bishop of Jerusalem under the name of Syriacos. Later, he found the nails that were driven into the body of Christ, and brought them as a gift to the queen. The painting, on which the kneeling Elena thanks the bishop, closes the cycle of scenes dedicated to the search for the Cross of the Lord. And if traditionally on both sides of the Cross are depicted Constantine and Helena, which symbolizes his miraculous acquisition, then in the church of Agyasmati at the base of the Cross - soldiers-saints clothed in Roman armor with crosses on their chests. These peculiar details underscore the extraordinary opening of the theme of the Cross and reflect the influence of Western culture on the artist's work. It was in this composition that the skill of Philip Goul, who managed to adapt the realistic style of the book miniature to the Byzantine system of monumental painting, was manifested.

Church of Our Lady in Arakiotissy Lagoudera

Ancient Byzantine church of the Virgin Arakiotissy located just off the main road from Nicosia to the Troodos Mountains, between the mountain villages of Lagoudera and Sarandi. Researchers believe that the church appeared at the end of the XII century., Presumably shortly before the arrival of the Crusaders. To this day it preserved the church and a small two-storey monastery building with cells overlooking the sundeck, which is supported by large wooden poles.

Ancient Byzantine church of the Virgin Arakiotissy located just off the main road from Nicosia to the Troodos Mountains, between the mountain villages of Lagoudera and Sarandi.

Researchers believe that the church appeared at the end of the XII century., Presumably shortly before the arrival of the Crusaders. To this day it preserved the church and a small two-storey monastery building with cells overlooking the sundeck, which is supported by large wooden poles.

Architecturally the church is a one-nave structure with vaulted high dome resting on a drum with twelve narrow windows. In the XIV century. It was attached to the narthex, which in the XVII century once again destroyed and replaced by a new, much larger, which made it possible to make the church more spacious and roomy.

To protect the temple from the bad weather, the second roof has been built - steep and sloping, covered the flat tiles and goes far beyond the walls. It is possible to create the protruding part around the church atrium (hall), protected on all sides by a wooden lattice. The dome of the church was covered with a separate small roof. These additional details that emerged somewhat later, probably in the XIV century, helped to keep the painting, which is fully covered not only the interior of the temple, but its exterior walls.

Wall murals in Laguder, according to experts, the most expressive example of monumental painting of the late XII century. During these years, many brilliant artists worked in Cyprus, creating their masterpieces, but the murals of this church are simply unique. According to experts, such examples are not preserved even in Constantinople itself. Colors, proportions, use of space, graceful figures, graceful poses - everything is done masterfully, meticulously caring about small details that are hardly visible to the inquisitive eye. The sense of drawing, form and rhythm that manifested itself already in the paintings of the church of Asina was developed here into a true movement, expressed in fluttering robes and dramatic gestures that contrast with peace and quiet. Many researchers, for example, A. and J. Stilianu, Marina Solomida-Ieronitida agree on the idea that the creator of these paintings was Theodore Apsevdis - a Greek artist who mastered the court techniques of Constantinople with virtuosic technique and mastery of mural painting. His painting adorned the entire historical period of the Byzantine Empire and was later perceived and perfected by the Italian creators of the frescoes of the 13th - 14th centuries.

Church in the list of World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO 1985 years.

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