The first walls surrounding Lefkosia (Nicosia) was built by the Franks in the XIV century and encompasses a much larger area than the XVI century Venetian walls that still surround the old city. When the Venetians occupied Cyprus, they decided to demolish the Frankish walls, because they were shabby and did not provide adequate protection against new weapons such as artillery.
Also Frankish walls were too large for their staffing Venetian army and too close to the hills to the east and south-east of the city.
Forming a circle, the walls built by the Venetians were fortified by eleven heart-shaped bastions in and protected by a moat wide 80 meters. The walls were built of mud bricks, and they rested on the lower part of the stone buttresses.
When the Turks occupied Nicosia, they repaired the walls and covered the upper part of the stone. The moat around the walls now has many purposes, it is used as sports fields, public gardens, for exhibitions outdoor sculptures, parking lot and so on. D.