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Medieval castle Kolossi

Seven kilometers east of Limassol, in the center of the fertile plain of the medieval castle of Kolossi.

History of the castle

The castle was built in the beginning of the XIII century Kyu de Luzinianom (Guy de Lusignan), King of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. On land luziniantsy built a small fortress, and was created around a feud with numerous vineyards and sugar cane plantations.

In 1210 year, King South (Hugh) I bestow Kolossi Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem (loannites, Hospitallers).

In 1291, after the fall of Acre and the loss of Christian lands in Palestine, the Hospitallers finally settled in Cyprus, making the island their main base in the Mediterranean. Kolossi fairly quickly became the richest site in the possession of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.

Despite the fact that in the year 1320 Hospitallers settled on the island of Rhodes, the feud was still in their possession, but called GRANDE COMANDERIE.

In 1454 year manager Louis de Maniac (Louis de Magnac) newly rebuilt the castle. Structural strength of the castle withstood many earthquakes, including 1904 1905 and gg., Led to the destruction of Limassol.

Description

As noted above, the existing castle was built on the ruins of an old castle beginning of the XIII century. This is evidenced by the results of excavations conducted in 80-s of the last century. Preserved ruins of the outer wall (length 19 meters, height 4 meters, width 1.1 meters) once had the corners semicircular defensive towers, one of which was a well (depth up 7.5 meters).

Kernel lock - two-storey square tower-keep, similar to the end of XII European buildings beginning of the XIII century. Each of the sides of the tower has a length 16 meters on the outside and the inside 13.5 meters. Width wall - 1.25 - 1.5 meter tower height - 21 meter.

Entrance to the dungeon located on the second floor, in the central part of the southern wall. He is soboykamennuyu staircase with wooden drawbridge (restored in 1933 year). The bridge is equipped with a chain hoist. To protect the bridge is equipped with a bay window on the roof (3h1 m) with loopholes-mashikuli to defeat the enemy.

First, the lowest floor, presumably was the pantry. It consists of three rooms, separated by a wide stone walls 0,9 meters with arched openings. Premises oriented from east to west. In two of them preserved stone water tank.

One of the premises is connected to the top floor of a stone staircase.

The second floor has two rooms, oriented north to south. One of them, the bigger, equipped with a large fireplace, which according to its size and design is more like the kitchen stove. This room and the location of the storage areas suggests that this room was used as a kitchen. In the second, a smaller room, presumably castle chapel preserved fresco (2,5h2,5 meters) depicting the crucifixion of Christ, the Virgin Mary and St. John.

Located on the third floor apartments Grand Commander of the island of Cyprus (Grand Commander) or his deputy (Lieutenant). Floor is divided into two large rooms (13h6 meters), one of which is opening on the north side was the private apartments, and the other - the knightly living. Both rooms are equipped with fireplaces, which in its decor reminiscent of fireplaces in Komandorskii Hospitaller castle on the island of Rhodes. Rooms around the perimeter highlights eight windows (1,25h0,9 meters).

The height of the third floor 7,5 meters. Holes in the walls, located at half height, and found them in the remainder of the tree, suggest that the third floor was divided, with a wooden floor, another intermediate floor that could be used as a loft or as private apartments, while At the bottom is the living room.

Second and third floors are interconnected stone spiral staircase, which has a total width of steps 70 90 see this same staircase allows access to the roof of the tower (16h16 meters). By perimeiru roof parapet runs with teeth, which made loopholes crossbow type (partially restored in 1933 year). Here are the two bay windows, one of which, as stated above, served to protect the suspension bridge, in the second, on the north wall, presumably was an outhouse.
By tower adjoined outbuildings. Near the castle are the ruins of the plant sugar cane, and the remains of the aqueduct once supplied water to this plant.

There is one more interesting detail fortress. On the east wall of the tower from the outside, on the second floor, is a marble panel in the form of a cross, decorated with coats of arms. In the central part, on the heraldic shield, coat of arms is combined Cypriot Luzinyakov. It consists of the Kingdom of Jerusalem Coat of Arms (large and four small red cross on a white field) actually kind of emblem of the Frankish Luzinyakov (lion on a striped field), the coat of arms of the kingdom of Cyprus (red lion on a gold field), and, finally, the coat of arms of Armenia (red lion on a silver field). Last included in a combined arms for the reason that 1393, King James I of Cyprus was considered, at least formally, the king of Jerusalem and Armenia. Combined arms adorns the crown, which emphasizes its royal status. Two other panel to the right and left of the central, are emblems belonging to the Order of St. Grandmasters John of Jerusalem Jean de Eraser (Jean de Lastic, 1427-1454) and Jacques de Mille (Jaque de Milli, 1454-1461). This is due to the fact that not only the Hospitallers guarded for two centuries the island of Cyprus Luzinyakov but owned, part of the territory of the kingdom. On the lower heraldic shield emblem of the Grand Commander of the island of Cyprus Louis de Maniac (Louis de Magnac), which, as noted above, the reconstructed castle of 1454

This fine example of medieval military architecture. In 1291 the castle became the center settled on the island of the Knights Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem. They are engaged in the cultivation of sugarcane (former sugar factory is located in the immediate vicinity of the castle of Kolossi) and grapes. It went away the famous wine "Kommandariya."

The existing castle was erected in 1454g., When Louis de Commandeur maniacs. Three-storey tall tower of the fortress almost 25 m has a wall thickness 2,5 m entrance to the castle the drawbridge and immediately fell into the second floor living quarters. On the third floor chambers were Commander, and on the roof of the castle - the observation deck, which today can explore the surrounding area. Downstairs in the basement, were wells.

In the XIV century a few years the castle came into the possession of Knights Templar.

Here Richard the Lionheart married with his chosen - Berengaria of Navarre.

Near the castle are the remains of the mill XIV century.

Kolossi Castle is located in the village of Kolossi, 11 km west of Lemesos (Limassol). It was built in the XV century. on the ruins of a former fortress dating back to the XIII century .. The remains of these ruins can still be seen in the east of the present castle. The castle belonged to the Knights of the Order of the Holy Jerusalem. John and lived there most prominent Commanders of the Order of Knights. During several years in XIV. the castle was controlled by the Knights Templar.

The castle itself is a high square tower in 21 meters with three floors. The lower floor is divided into three parts and was probably used as a warehouse. On the east side there is a stone staircase that leads first to the second floor, where the kitchen was located, and then ascends to the third floor. The third floor was divided into two large halls and lived here Commander of Knights. In the south of the castle is a courtyard surrounded by walls and the ruins of the auxiliary buildings, probably stables or warehouses. In the southwest corner of the building was the entrance, protected by a circular tower. In the east of the castle was the production of sugar cane.

It also made and sent for export famous Cypriot sweet wine "Kommandariya." This wine is one of the oldest wine brands in the world, retaining its name during the past eight centuries.

Castle is a massive three-storey square structure, built of limestone blocks yellowish. Located in 10 km west of Limassol. Kolossi Castle was built in the beginning of the XIII century, Guy de Lusignan (Guy de Lusignan), King of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1454 year manager Louis de Maniac (Louis de Magnac) newly rebuilt the castle and he has acquired a modern look. The main tower of the castle three-storey square tower-dungeon is almost 22 meters in height, the thickness of its walls is more 2,5 meters. Entrance to the dungeon of the castle located on the second floor, in the central part of the southern wall.

On the roof of the castle is equipped with an observation deck.

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