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Capitalism and drug addiction

Capitalism and drug addiction

02.02.2018
Tags: Drugs, Japan, Asia, China, Europe, History, USA

Addiction has become a real scourge of human society. Despite all the "efforts" of the bourgeois governments, the consumption of drugs by the population of the Earth is slowly but surely growing, embracing already over a quarter of a billion people [1]. Mother Russia with its "holy God-bearing people" is by no means an exception: the annual increase in the number of drug addicts is fixed all the last 25 years [2]. What is the cause of this fierce social disease?

Bourgeois specialists often rest on the fact that drug addiction exists since ancient times, since the time of the caveman. And kind of it. Indeed, a person with a long time known for various plants and fungi that cause euphoria or hallucinations. However, neither the Ancient World nor the Middle Ages did not know addiction in the form in which it exists the last 200 years. Drug-containing drugs were used either in religious rituals or in medical practice, and this was put under strict control of the priestly class or medical "specialists" (often it was the same person). It does not matter whether we are talking about ancient Egypt or ancient Greece, pre-Christian Russia or medieval China - everywhere we will see a severe regulation of drug trafficking by the tribal elite / priestly caste, who knew perfectly well how much damage to the productive forces of society (and, therefore, to himself , sitting on the neck of this society) can cause the spread of drug addiction.

Capitalism, which destroyed the patriarchal foundations, changed the situation. The drug has become a commodity, a very profitable commodity with a specific ability to cause physical dependence. The first to note this fact was the British from the East India Company, who in 1772 decided to rectify the affairs of the colonial administration in poverty-stricken Bengal by selling opium to China. The Chinese people were literally poisoned by the continuous flow of Bengal opium, and British businessmen, as is known, reacted very aggressively to attempts by the Chinese government to restrict the sale of "overseas mud" by unleashing the Opium Wars. After the second Opium War 1856-60, the flow of opium, coming to China from India, acquired catastrophic proportions, promoting the transformation of the once great ancient empire into a courtyard where imperialists of all stripes were in charge.

The same opium business, albeit with less extensive results, was conducted by the British in Malaya and Siam, the French in Indochina, and the Spaniards in the Philippines.

As for Europe, opium and hashish, which appeared in the era of the birth of colonialism, were popular, except that the petty bourgeoisie that had begun to degenerate. Salon Bohemia, the creative intelligentsia and simply tired of the unbearable lightness of being, citizens of the miracle-eaters were exiled to exotic opium tubes, trying to hide in the clubs of narcotic smoke from the imperfection of this world. For workers, opium and hashish were too expensive treats, so the workers and ruined peasants overcame the horrors of unbearable exploitation with the help of cheap alcohol, which is perfectly described by Friedrich Engels in The Working Class Conditions in England.

Then drugs began to pave the way for mass recognition through medicine. Among the many sciences that received a powerful push in development with the approval of capitalism, there was also pharmaceutical chemistry, desperately searching for an anesthetic. This was especially important in the face of numerous predatory wars. In 1807, the doctor of the Napoleonic army, Armai Segen, first isolated from opium a technical morphine, intended for pain relief for wounded and crippled soldiers. Subsequently, with the invention of the injection needle, morphine was widely used not only during wars (the Civil War in the United States, the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars), after which the number of addicts increased enormously, but also in "civilian" medicine. He used it very negligently: the morphine was prescribed literally from all diseases, and the doctors themselves were exposed to the dangerous influence of the drug (in 19 century among morphinists, people who were specifically associated with medicine predominated) [3].

Medicine continued to give humanity new drugs: at the end of the 70-ies of the XIX century, the use of cocaine extracted from coca leaves began as an anesthetic, and in 1898 an even stronger, "heroic anesthetic" - heroin was discovered.

The transition of capitalism to a monopolistic stage brought drug addiction to a new level.

More and more people who have lost faith in the future and are seeking to forget the horrors of the capitalist system, purposefully use drugs. Continuously raging between the imperialist powers of war, new detachments were given to the army of drug addicts, consisting of soldiers dependent on morphine. It is worth pointing out here that even during the difficult period of the revolution and civil war (not to mention the NEP) even the Bolsheviks faced a very serious epidemic of cocaine and morphine use in Russian society [4].

Particularly striking was the transformation of drugs from medical drugs used for other purposes, into a separate product designed to destroy the human personality. In the 20-ies of the XX century, rather weak international business structures are being formed, specializing exclusively in the production and smuggling of drugs, which are banned for use in medicine in most developed countries. The new shadow sector of the bourgeoisie has now begun to poison not only the peoples under colonial oppression with profitable poison, but also its own population.

The Second World War somewhat slowed down this process. The severance of trade ties, a severe crisis, militaristic agitation and rather serious repressive measures led to the destabilization of drug trafficking and a significant reduction in drug addiction in Europe and the United States. The defeat of fascism, on which the world bourgeoisie made the main stake in the struggle against communism, placed the ruling class in a very difficult position. We needed a new ally to destroy the "red threat". And one of such allies for the imperialism was a young drug mafia.

Warm relations between class partners were formed immediately after the end of the Second World War. In a situation where in France and Italy, countries with the largest and strongest in Western Europe, the Communist parties, seasoned in the years of armed struggle against fascism, the situation has become aggravated, imperialism has resorted to the services of organized crime.

In France, the imperialist bourgeoisie found reliable support in its confrontation with the Communists in the person of Corsican bandits, who were obligingly engaged in beatings, intimidation and murders trade union and communist leaders in the south of the country. In 1947, 1948 and 1950, the members of the Corsican Union reached complete co-operation with the bourgeois leadership of France: at the behest of the authorities, proud Corsicans ripped off the huge strikes of workers supported by the Communists, covering millions of workers throughout the country. It went so far that members of the mafia structure not only customarily terrorized workers, trying to force them to abandon legitimate demands, but also provided entrepreneurs with strikebreakers to break strikes.

By itself, in response to these services, imperialism, through the secret services of the United States and France, gave the Corsicans carte blanche to conduct a very profitable business for the production and transfer of heroin and opium to the United States. Marseilles and specifically the port of Marseilles, where the Corsican mafia reigned supreme at the hands of the reactionaries, began to turn into a key point in the international network for the production and distribution of heroin. Later in the years of the national liberation struggle of the peoples of Indochina against France and America, the Corsicans will further strengthen their positions in world drug trafficking, increasing the flow of drugs from Southeast Asia to Europe and the United States.

Another ally of reaction in Western Europe was the Italian mafia, primarily the Sicilian one. Let us point out that the Italian scoundrel Salvatore "Lucky" Luciano, the boss of the Italian mafia in the US, famous in the 30-ies for his business in Cuba (which, thanks to the assistance of a certain Fulgencio Batista, then commander-in-chief of the armed forces, turned into one large brothel that brings multimillion arrived "Cosa Nostra"), in 1943, rendered significant assistance to the Western allies in preparing the landing for Sicily, for which already in 1946 was solemnly released from an American prison and extradited to his homeland, to take over there at the head of an international network for the transfer of heroin in the United States.

Don Calogero Vizzini, the direct leader of the Mafia in Sicily, was also a confidant of the American imperialists on the island; came to the point that, by his patronage, the Allied administration appointed members of the Mafia as mayors of entire cities. Vizzini, of course, tried to help his American friends with all his strength, engaged in intimidation, harassment and attacks on representatives of the Communist Party of Italy. So, his thugs 16 September 1944 year they shot a communist rally, injuring 19 people.

Do not forget about the even more rabid scoundrel, bandit Salvatore Giuliano, a thug at the service of the Sicilian "family." Adopted at the end of 1945-early 1946 year active participation in the CIA-inspired separatist armed struggle in Sicily, after the collapse of the adventure with the separation of the island from the "blushing" Italy, Giuliano went underground, engaged in outright banditry and providing occasional services to the reactionary forces. Thus, members of his gang engaged in attacks on polling stations, offices of peasant leagues and representations of the Communist Party of Italy on the eve of and during local elections 20 April 1947. Around the same time, the faithful son of his homeland Giuliano compiled a letter addressed to Harry Truman asking him to take Sicily under the US protectorate. turn the island into an American colony. The apotheosis of the counter-revolutionary activity of this "Sicilian Robin Hood" (as the bourgeois press dubbed it), was an attack on the May Day Communist demonstration in 1947, when 11 people were killed.

The result of all this activity, which included also counter-revolutionary propaganda among the masses, frank forgery and falsification, intimidation, etc. methods, began to undermine the left forces in Sicily by the time of 1948. Political power on the island was in fact shared by Christian Democrats and the Mafia. It is hardly a coincidence that during the second half of 40-s Sicily, along with Marcel turns into one of the reliable items of processing of Middle Eastern opium into heroin and its further transfer to the United States. And, even more surprisingly, until the end of the 50-ies, this activity did not cause any questions at all from the CIA, or even more from the police structures of the Italian bourgeois state.

The joint efforts of the Sicilian-Corsican mafia, which completely took over the supply of drugs in the United States, led to a triple increase in the number of American heroin addicts (from 20 000 at the end of World War II to 60 000 at 1952). By 1965, this figure has increased to 150 000 [5].

A similar role was played in Japan by the famous "inflexible" yakuza bandits, which represented a reliable social base of reaction, which had been backed by Japanese fascism since 30. "Kuromaku" (something like the "gray cardinal") Yoshio Kodama, himself distinguished by ultra-nationalist views (by the way, adherence to the "patriotism" of the most reactionary spill is a characteristic feature of the yakuza), in the era of American occupation was released from prison, where he was held on charges of war crimes, solely for the sake of using his authority and connections in the criminal world to help "Western friends" in their struggle against the workers' and communist movements. Under the control of Kodame, the Arkhars, in the name of "the greatness of Japan" under the heel of the United States, enthusiastically attacked workers' rallies and strikes, served as strikebreakers and even political agitators of the Liberal Democratic Party financed by Kodama's friend, fascist millionaire Riyoti Sasakawa, who was at the source of the World Anti-Communism The League, which united the anti-communist forces of Asia in the post-war period.

The same kind of trusting relations between the imperialist occupiers and the leader of the Korean yakuza Hisauki Machia, who, using temporarily undermined the influence of the Japanese, literally undermined the "black market" of Japan in the middle of the 40. The militants of Machia, with the full support of the occupation administration, likewise worked to prevent the strengthening of the Japanese labor and left movement. Later this Korean bandit with his scumbags directly cooperated with the special services of South Korea - in particular, it was the people of Machia who were implicated in the kidnapping from the Tokyo hotel and the attempted murder of Kim Dae-jung, who was oppositional to the Pak Jong-Hee government.

In fact, the alliance of the fascists, criminal and imperialist "advisers" had unlimited power throughout Japan for 50-60. The case has come to the point that the Japanese government seriously demanded the help of the mafia structures in suppressing the indignant exploitation and poverty of the Japanese people before the threat of growth of workers' speeches in the 60-ies [6].

Undoubtedly, this class alliance contributed to the saturation of the Japanese islands with drugs that massively poured in during the Korean War, and also beneficially influenced the development of traffic of opium and heroin through Japan to the United States.

Imperialism did not disdain even the most insignificant allies from the world of crime. So, in the era of a major rise in the movement for the rights of blacks in the US at the end of the 60 The FBI contributed to growth and development of gangs of drug traffickers in the black ghettos of New York, Chicago and Los Angeles, trying, on the one hand, to set the declassed gangsters on Negro political organizations, among which the most visible was the ultra-left "Party of the Black Panthers", and on the other - to discredit itself Movement of blacks, linking it with heroin addiction.

The reactionary bourgeoisie used a similar approach in the Basque Country and in the Catholic districts of Northern Irish cities at the beginning of the 80-ies. In a short time, these most militarized regions of Europe, literally flooded with police and representatives of special services, miraculously turned into a real hotbed of heroin addiction, which in this case, like the Chinese epidemic of opium addiction of the 11th century, served as a means of curbing the youth ridden by the revolutionary impulse.

I must say that the Mafia and reactionaries remained reliable class-based partners of imperialism even after the temporary removal of the revolutionary threat. A typical example is the Albanian mafia, which actively invaded the European market in the middle of the 12th through the support of the notorious Kosovo Liberation Army, a nationalistic organization controlled by Western intelligence agencies to fight the government of independent Yugoslavia, whose budget was in fact completely formed at the expense of heroin traffic from the Middle East.

Another field of imperialism's activity for the construction and organization of an international network of drug trafficking was also Southeast Asia "tormented by the damned Communists".

Here, the drug trade had a long tradition, laid by the European colonizers. During World War II, the "glorious" legacy was intercepted by Japanese militarists who actively developed the trade and consumption of opium in China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaya, Indonesia - throughout the "East Asian prosperity". The goal in this case was not to make a profit - addiction contributed to the disintegration of the morale of local resistance. The defeat of Japan created colossal problems for the Western imperialists: the struggle of peoples against oppression was widespread, the anti-Japanese partisan armies under the leadership of the Communists were transformed into the army of national and social liberation. The triumph of the revolution in China, and then the defeat in the Korean War, sowed panic in the camp of reactionaries. It was necessary to seek support for subversive activities against the people's camp, and such a support was soon found.

The victory of the Chinese revolution snatched the great people from the captivity of many years of drug dependence. Naturally, a large cohort of parasites, who were seated on drug trafficking, lost their profits, replenishing the camp of sworn counterrevolutionaries and fighters against communism. Soon the rebel fighters of the Kuomintang joined the rabble, with the support of the CIA to launch a "sacred liberation war" against the Reds. In the border areas of Burma, the creation of a counterrevolutionary army led by General Lee Ming began, supply of which was almost exclusively due to the trade in opium. In 1952, this large gang tried to invade China, but was crushed and banished away. After that, General Lee Ming, in alliance with local mountain peoples, created a quasi-state in the Burmese state of Shan, whose declared goal was the struggle for the "liberation" of China from the Communists. At the same time, the budget of this military anti-communist state fullywas formed due to profits from the sale of drugs.

Over the next years, the unrecognized state Shang with the most active support of the CIA, turned into the world's largest factory for the production of opium and heroin, closely associated with the fascist pro-American governments of Thailand and Taiwan.

In neighboring Laos, the imperialists, striving to destroy the revolutionary movement, made the main bet on the representatives of the backward mountain tribe Hmong, whose leaders were distinguished by considerable reaction. More Frenchmen actively used Hmong, fooled by anti-communist and monarchist propaganda, in military operations against Vietnam, and the Americans who came for them relied on the mountaineers in the war against Pat Lao and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam. By itself, the reactionary elite of Hmong fought for the interests of the imperialists not for free: as a payment for services, the French and American aggressors contributed in every way to the organization and growth of opium production in the territories of Hmong. Attracted by the prospect of colossal income, the tribal nobility began to plant a culture of opium poppy, which was then sold to the leaders by the peasants in exchange for agricultural tools, utensils and other cheap inventory.

In the end, the "opium king", in whose hands all the threads of production and processing poppies converged in the drug, by the end of the 50-s became General Wang Pao, devoted to the royal throne and the American capital of the warrior, who organized in 1960 the proceeds from the drug traffic " Secret Army "- an anti-communist paramilitary gang, whose tasks included suppressing the revolutionary movement of Laotian and Vietnamese patriots. On the basis of the struggle against his own people, Wang Pao became friends with another fiery anti-communist, leader of the Laotian right, General Fumi Nosavan. With the mediation of the CIA, which provided even transport aircraft for the transport of drugs, this couple expanded production, taking on the honorable mission of processing heroin not only Laotian, but also part of Burmese opium. Later, this heroin went to South Vietnam, from where, with the mediation of the Corsicans already known to us, acted with the tacit approval of American advisers, part of it went to Marseilles, partly spread among the Vietnamese population. A little later, the same Lao heroin was poisoned by American soldiers who participated in the unjust war.

Thus, thanks to the link between the drug mafia, fascists and imperialist strategists, by 1970, more than half of all opium consumed in the world was produced in the so-called Burma, formed between Burma, Laos and Thailand. The Golden Triangle.

The victory of the revolution in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia somewhat corrected, but did not change the situation. Fascists, drug traffickers led by Wang Pao fled to Thailand, from where they continued to control the production of heroin in the remote mountainous parts of Laos. In the northern part of Thailand, the aging veterans from the Kuomintang, led by Khun Sa, were entrenched, controlling the traffic from Burma, using the full support of the Thai fascist government of General Kriangsak Chamamanan. Subsequently, opium general Khun Sa, displaced from Thailand to Burma, joining forces with Shan separatists and sophisticated people of Li Min, in 1985 proclaimed the independence of the state of Shan, becoming the commander of the most powerful armed grouping of the Golden Triangle.

We can not ignore Afghanistan, which by the efforts of US imperialism and local reactionaries in a rather short time turned into the center of the "Golden Crescent" - the second largest zone of production of opium and heroin. In fact, the US administration and the special services of the Iranian shah even before the invasion of the Soviet troops supported the local Afghan anti-communist opposition, armed with the production and trade of heroin. With the outbreak of the war, this support only intensified.

Thus, for example, a small group of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar "Hezb-i Islami" due to drug trafficking turned into the largest partisan force in the country. A huge role in the transformation of Hekmatyar from a small, frantic fanatic who spat into the faces of girls who dared to remove the veil, to the solid and most prominent heroin baron of Afghanistan, in addition to the CIA, the fascist regime of Pakistani general Zia played, as well as the reactionary movement "Jamaat-i Islami" Serious ties within the officer corps of the Armed Forces of Pakistan. Just like in Laos, the Afghan "freedom fighters" planted opium poppy culture among the peasants, and then the redeemed opium crop was transported to Pakistan, where it was processed into heroin by local craftsmen, under the watchful eye of officials. The most famous of such "faithful Muslims" who contribute to the struggle against "Red Satan" through the production of heroin can be considered a close friend of the dictator Ziya, the governor of Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, General Fazl Hook, who accumulated, through drug trafficking, a crazy state estimated in a few billion dollars.

Needless to say, such activities could not but have consequences for Pakistan itself, where the number of heroin addicts increased from the zero mark in 1978 to three million in 1989.

For the eighth decade of the 11th century, the support of the Afghan "Mujahideen" from imperialism and world reaction was growing. The number of Afghan heroin, thrown into the markets of Europe and the US, also grew. In 20, heroin from Afghanistan through Pakistan massively poured into the US, resulting in street drug sales increased by 22%. Production itself grew more than fivefold compared with 1971 (100 tons vs. 575 in 1982). At the beginning of the 80, due to monsoon rains that destroyed the opium poppy harvest for two consecutive years, the Golden Triangle lost the palm of first place in the supply of heroin to Europe. A holy place can not be empty - an Afghan came to replace a Burmese narcotic. In general, to 1989, world production of opium due to the activities of the drug mafia in Afghanistan and the Golden Triangle grew more than 4 times in comparison with 1979.

After the withdrawal of the Soviet troops, Afghanistan turned into an arena of violent clashes between the "Mujahideen", who were eager to divide spheres of influence in the drug trade. The seizure of power in 1995 by Islamists from the Taliban, who enjoyed US support, the situation, contrary to the assurances of some modern researchers, has not changed. Only in 2000, the Taliban issued a fatwa banning the cultivation of opium poppy, which resulted in a sharp decline in the production of heroin in 2001, and wholesale prices in the regional market soared to the maximum. That allowed to assume that it is a large marketing action, thanks to which the Taliban could for some time receive super profits from dry opium stocks that are not demanding for storage, unlike many other agricultural products. In any case, as early as 2002, the situation began to improve, the Taliban were driven out by the Northern Alliance troops to the areas bordering Pakistan, and the opium poppy plantations were quickly restored.

The third source of world drug trafficking can rightly be called Central America and part of the Andean region, covering Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

The pioneers of drug trafficking in Latin America can be called American "volunteers" who worked within the framework of the Peace Corps in the Andean region in the middle of the 60 [7]. They, first, established the cultivation of marijuana in the Sierra Nevada, and secondly, they became the vehicles of the interests of the American mafia in the region, as a result, soon there were large centers for processing marijuana in Magdalena, Cesar and Guajira, which immediately went to the US market. The crisis in the cotton industry that began in connection with the extensive use of synthetic fiber led to a huge number of peasants from the northern coast of Colombia moving to cultivation of the narcotic culture. In parallel with this process, formed on the intermediary operations The Colombian drug mafia penetrated deeper into the structures of the bourgeois state, providing the necessary comfort in the production and distribution of drugs, as well as money laundering.

In the middle of the 70, the Colombian mafia structures slowly began to shift to the production of a much more expensive cocaine, whose machinery was brought from Peru. Moreover, the Americans by that time began to produce their own marijuana of a higher quality. Thus, the "boom" of marijuana use in the US served as an impetus to the growth and consolidation of the Colombian mafia, whose godfathers were figures from the Peace Corps, closely related to the CIA and American gangsters.

Directly in Colombia, the drug cartels that emerged at the end of the 70 became the mainstay in the struggle of a rather weak bourgeois state with a left-wing guerrilla movement. In December 1981, the 223 meeting of the largest leaders of the Colombian drug mafia took place, each of which allocated X million pesos for 2 and, according to 10, their best people, to create an organization that was supposed to fight the communist guerrilla. This was the birth of one of the first anti-guerrilla groupings, Muerte a Secuestadores, a two-thousand-strong army engaged in the destruction of both members of the rebel movement itself and the people supporting them. From this moment began the history of the so-called. "Colombian paramilitaries", " numerous Nazi death squads, serving the drug mafia and the government, whose leaders, like the Castaño brothers, Ramon Isas, or Carlos Maria Jimenez, as they grew in size, became big cocaine barons themselves.

Over time, the Colombian cartels grew so strong that they could afford to enter a "big politics", hoping to squeeze the "old" Colombian bourgeoisie, which, relying on the US, at the end of the 80 launched a war against the most dangerous faction of the drug mafia, in particular , against the famous Medellin cartel Pablo Escobar, a victory over which contributed to the overthrow of the American military Manuel Noriega, Panamanian dictator, actively cooperating with the Medellin cartel.

About Noriega should be told separately. A well-known CIA as an active participant in drug trafficking since the middle of the 70-ies, he enjoyed the protection of imperialism for his anti-communist positions. Providing the Americans with a number of small services, such as providing shelter to the Iranian shah who fled the revolution, at the beginning of the 80, this high-ranking drug dealer was valued at all in gold, as he provided the rear for the activities of anti-communist Nicaraguan thugs known as the "contras". Another patron of the "Contra" struggle against the Sandinista revolution was the Honduran general Paz Garcia, who, with the financial support of the head of the local drug mafia Juan Ramon, Matta Ballesteros, came to power in 1978, carrying out the so-called " "Cocaine revolution". Two of these "great leaders" opened a new page of interaction between the fascists, the military, the CIA and the drug mafia in the fight against communism.

During the 80-ies the role of drug trafficking in financing the activities of the Nicaraguan counter-revolutionaries increased as the Reagan administration collapsed official financial assistance under world pressure and outrageous scandals. Eventually, by the time of 1982, the Contras had acted solely on the proceeds from the transfer of Colombian cocaine to the United States. It came to the point that Avion de Panama Airlines, when leaving Panama, unloaded weapons for the contras in Costa Rica and then proceeded with the cargo of cocaine to South Florida, being under reliable CIA protection. Similar functions of transferring weapons and cocaine from Honduras to the USA and vice versa were performed by SETCO, owned by Ballesteros.

By the way, the representative of the Contras, Danilio Blandon, was the first to supply the United States with a crack, a cheaper cocaine-type smoker intended for distribution in the black ghettos of the United States, still affected by revolutionary ferment. The results were beyond praise: the crack literally blew up the black community, spreading lightning among teenagers and young men, causing a record number of overdoses, an increase in crime, AIDS and other problems. The profit from trade, of course, went to rearmament and intensification of the counter-revolutionary struggle in Nicaragua and El Salvador.

Perhaps the most vivid picture of the full union of the fascists, the drug mafia and imperialism can be the example of Bolivia, where in 1980, through the coup to power came General Luis García Mesa Tejada. Having established a special political apparatus headed by international fascist mercenaries, like the Italian Stefano delle Chiaie and the German war criminal Claus Barbier, Luis Garcia Mesa launched a rabid terror in the country against the left opposition. On the other hand, Interior Minister Luis Arce Gomez, who has been involved in the trafficking of cocaine since the middle of the 70, literally consolidated the Bolivian drug mafia under its own leadership, helping in the transfer of cocaine to the US in exchange for helping to strengthen the fascist dictatorship. The drug addiction was in fact legalized, becoming almost the main financial and social support of the fascist regime. True, the figures of "fighters with communism", who settled in Bolivia, soon acquired the grotesque features of crazy scumbags, and the Bolivian cocaine experiment Even the curators from Washington had questions. Eventually, after just under a year, the fascist-criminal clique of Luis Garcia was quietly dismissed.

Another major functionary who contributed to the development of drug trafficking in the 80 was the head of Peruvian intelligence, Vladimir Montesinos, whose star brightly flashed during the reign of Alberto Fujimori. Vowed to uproot the "worn out communists" from Maoist "Bright Way" and Guevarist "Revolutionary movement named after Tupac Amaru", Montesinos not only organized a network of death squads successfully suppressing the revolutionary movement, but also developed a violent activity in the field of air transportation of cocaine supplied by Peruvian drug cartels.

Another powerful figure of Latin American traffic was the same unforgettable Manuel Noriega, whom the US imperialists in 1989 unexpectedly accused of links with drug trafficking. Given the long-term support for this shadow initiative by the CIA, the charges seemed strange. By the end of the 80-ies, Noriega's regime had crossed the throat of the absolute majority of Panamanians. The arbitrariness of officials, obviously connected with the drug mafia, impoverishment and terror against the disaffected led to mass protests of the population in 1987. The prospects for future political upheavals and fear of the intensification of anti-imperialist forces prompted Washington to remove Noriega from power under the pretext of "fighting the drug mafia."

In general, as the "red threat" faded away, the fight against drug trafficking became a convenient occasion for the imperialists to interfere in the affairs of sovereign countries. The first victim of such a "struggle" was Bolivia, where in 1989 the forces of American imperialism carried out a grand operation involving 160 rangers and six combat helicopters, ended with the capture of one (!!!) 17-year-old petty cocaine trader. Further, under the hammer of "fighting the death dealers" came Colombia and Panama, where everything ended with the overthrow of the government, street fighting and hundreds of victims. During the 90-ies, US imperialism flooded the Latin American countries with its "advisers" in the fight against drugs, which replaced the more current "advisers to combat subversive activities." It goes without saying that the true role of these "assistants" is not so much to catch the drug barons as to control the repressive forces of formally independent countries.

It should be noted that in recent years, similar method in Central America timidly trying to implement and Russian imperialism: for example, in Nicaragua, as part of the "cooperation" to counter drug trafficking, there are permanently stationed about 250 military personnel participating in patrolling the coastal zone, and in Managua, construction ends center, in which Russian specialists will train Nicaraguan colleagues in the successful fight against drug trafficking [8].

The huge number of scandals associated with the support of the American administration of the drug mafia in Central America, Southeast Asia and Afghanistan, which shocked the American public in the middle of the 80, placed imperialism in a rather delicate position. The exit was quickly found. The responsibility for the growth of the drug trade was decided to be shifted to the "Communists" themselves, acting on the direct instigation of Cuba and the USSR.

For the first time accusations in the connections of the Nicaraguan revolutionary government with drug trafficking were heard in 1984 year. The evidence was a CIA-wide photo that allegedly fixed the unloading of cocaine bags in the presence of a high-ranking Sandinist official. The character of the photo was quietly opened in the US Congress after 3, but this could not stop the imperialists finding a new convenient reason for accusing the progressive forces. A new label appears in the mouths of bourgeois journalists, the "narco-hero", which is hung on almost every revolutionary movement of countries in the cultivation zone of narcotic plants.

So, in addition to Nicaragua, the Colombian partisans, Peruvian, Thai, Filipino and Indian Maoists, Tamil separatists and communist insurgents in Sri Lanka, fighters of the Kurdish liberation movement in Turkey and Iraq, Palestinian fidai, were listed as "drug heroines" at different times. Of course, there was sometimes a share of truth in these accusations, but the contribution of the partisans to the development of drug trafficking was negligible compared to the activity of the functionaries of the various reactionary regimes and secret services of the capitalist countries.

For the production of drugs, including cultivation, plant cultivation, direct production, transportation, distribution and money laundering, simply could not exist on the current scale without the significant involvement of military, police, customs officials of central governments and bank employees. As for the latter, The links between the drug mafia and the largest industrial-banking monopolies are no longer denied even by bourgeois experts themselves [9] [10] [11] [12].

The left partisans no, and never was so wide international relations and official representatives on the scale needed to support trade.

In the above examples, we see that drug trafficking is by no means a spontaneous phenomenon that arose "by itself," as some bourgeois experts assure, adding thoughtfully that demand suggests supply. The capitalist system really generates social depression and frustration, which are the basis of drug addiction, alcoholism, debauchery, suicidal behavior, and other similar depressive phenomena. However, such a wide scale of drug addiction could never have been achieved had it not been for the efforts of monopoly capital, striving at all costs to maintain its dominance in the face of the rising proletarian revolutionary wave.

On this path, capital did not disdain the mutually beneficial cooperation with the mafia structures, which are a reliable class partner of the ruling bourgeoisie. In this regard, it is not surprising that the drug mafia has the same ideological attitudes as the dying bourgeoisie. That is, anti-communism of the most reactionary kind, sometimes closing with frank fascism.

Of course, the repressive organs of the bourgeois states led and are in the formal struggle against illicit drug trafficking, but this showy fight against small dealers, not stopping the involvement of more and more people in the drug whirl, does not undercut the roots of the drug mafia.

Here, examples from the 20 century - revolutionary China, revolutionary Vietnam, revolutionary Cuba, which inherited from "the best social and economic system" got tens of thousands of drug addicts, a huge army of drug dealers and death dealers, can serve as an opposite example. And what? In a relatively short time, these countries eradicated drug addiction, cured dependent people, and destroyed the scoundrels who were making use of human degradation. Why? Because for the proletariat, who in those years took power in China, Vietnam or Cuba, the drug mafia was not a "class partner", not an "ideological ally," but an archenemy class enemy, and the drug-induced corruption of the human person was not a help in perpetuating the exploitation , but intolerable and harmful for both man and society as a phenomenon that undermines proletarian morality and the system of socialist relations. Unfortunately, at present these countries have long been not the revolutionary states of the proletariat - and the problem of drug addiction in them again becomes urgent.

The conclusion, which draws a line under all the above, arises by itself: drug addiction in its modern form owes its origin to dying capitalism, and without a final destruction of this obsolete socio-economic system, the struggle against drug addiction, drug trafficking and drug mafia is absolutely useless.


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Konstantin Malyshev
POLITSTURM
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