According to leaks in the US media, the Congress is winding down the railgun project - the customers did not arrange the range of the projectile and the speed of recharging. Now Russia has a chance to catch the first, especially since the appearance of this miracle weapon is inevitable in any case. If, of course, it will be possible to solve the main problem associated with it.
Our civilization is largely artisanal. Humanity has discovered several of the simplest laws of physics and is still exploiting them. In fact, all the progress is reduced to modifications of electromagnetic induction and iron strips, which are bent from heating and close (open) the contacts.
The inlet valve of water in the washing machine and the petrol injection valve of expensive foreign cars are the same. And there, and there - a copper coil with a steel core. At the right time, the coil is energized, an electromagnetic field is formed, the steel core is drawn inward, opens the hole - and water or gasoline enters the unit. When the voltage disappears, the normal spring returns the core to its place. If you remove the special weighting inside the stylalki and put it on the wheels, then during the spin it jerks from its place with an initial speed of 140 kilometers per hour. If she went vertically, then in two hours with a penny would go into the orbit of the Earth. Our rockets and spaceships are the same washing machines with firecrackers on the sides.
The main problem of this type of progress is materials. Humanity has never learned to do really strong, light, shock-resistant things. This curse has haunted us so far and now is on the path of the railgun.
And the eternal stock of cartridges
The first electromagnetic cannon back in 1916 year was gathered by the French friends Fachon and Willeple. Their gun dispelled the 50-gram shell to 200 meters per second. An excellent result for that time, however, the opening was not appreciated until the powder had exhausted itself completely (the powder charge could accelerate the projectile to a maximum of 2,5 km per second).
As it often happens, the principle of the miracle-weapon operation is simple and simple. Imagine two iron rails. They need to connect electricity, but what we have in the outlets, will not work - you need a constant current. Found, connected, nothing happens. But then Hendrik Lorentz took a conductive shell (for example, a seal), closed the rails for them, and the cat flew parallel to the rails in the direction of the rails to the wall. What happened?
When the projectile closed both rails, the current flowed first along the rail with a plus, then by the projectile, then along the rail with a minus. Around the conductors with current, an electromagnetic field is established, as it were, twisted by lines around the conductor. The lines of force of one field collide with the lines of force of the other field, and both fields abut the lines of force around the projectile. There is the force of Lorentz, which flings the seals against the wall.
This effect was known for a long time. But only recently, on the rails, they decided to put a shell and firing them at the enemy. It turned out that the electromotive force accelerates the projectile to such velocities that no explosives are needed - the blob destroys enemy armored objects with the force of kinetic energy, and this is a terrible force. Everyone remembers the example from physics about a baseball flying at the speed of light - eventually there will be an explosion like nuclear. The speed of the railgun shells is smaller, but it will not seem to anybody.
Hence a number of advantages of the railgun. The railgun of the railgun is just a pig. She does not need fuses and explosives. The pig will never detonate when the enemy shell hits. Compared with shells and missiles, pigs occupy much less space on the ship. This increases the survivability of the ship, and its possible ammunition.
In the future, hypersonic chutes can be used as anti-aircraft missiles.
One cruise missile costs plus or minus one million dollars. In modern warfare, such missiles require a lot. For example, during the 78 days of NATO operations in Yugoslavia, the United States issued an order of 218 sea-based cruise missiles and 60 cruise missiles for airborne deployment, and Britain added 20 cruise missiles from its submarine. As a result, about 300 million dollars literally flew into the pipe. And if the war stretches for a year? Two? Only on one cruise missiles you will be ruined.
The rail gun can shoot at targets with even more striking effect, but the usual three-kopecks pigs. You can even tear off a piece of the ship and shoot them at the enemy. Such a concept as "cartridges ran out," disappears altogether.
In this case, in contrast to the rocket, the chisel flying at hypersonic speed is extremely difficult to intercept by ABM and air defense forces.
According to the calculations of scientists, the cannon with muzzle energy 32 megajoule shoots a ten kilogram pigeon about 400 kilometers. 64-megajoule gun fires a shell more than 500 kilometers. The speed of the railgun is eight shots per minute.
In 2018, several of these guns were planned to be delivered to the warships of the Zumwalt project. But the problems of technical properties were revealed today.
The projectile has a huge acceleration, and after eight shots the rails come into disrepair. That is, the barrel needs to be changed, and at the rate of fire eight shots per minute - change every minute. Consequently, new, more robust materials are needed to make the trunk, but they are not yet available and seemingly not expected.
Nevertheless, according to calculations of military seamen, the first full-time railguns should be put into service in 2020.
"I'm leaving the cannon to the sky"
Very often, railroaders confuse another promising weapon of the future - the gun Gauss (Gauss gun). No wonder, the principle of action for him is the same - the electromagnetic acceleration of the masses. Only shooting these masses is a little different.
Imagine several solenoids (coils of inductance) through which the barrel of a weapon passes. The barrel itself is a dielectric, so when the voltage is applied to the coil, it does not react to the magnetic field at all. But on this field the shell inside the trunk perfectly reacts. When the first coil turns on, the magnetic field draws the disc inside the solenoid, which also resembles the operation of the water supply valve of the washing machine.
When the projectile went inside, the first coil turns off and the second solenoid immediately turns on. The projectile flies forward with increasing speed - and so on. The more powerful and shorter the coil's pulse, the faster the projectile flies.
Gauss-gang is incomparably better than any gunpowder. A Gauss hand assault rifle can shoot ordinary steel balls, it does not need expensive ammunition, and it can change the velocity and kinetic energy of the bullet as desired by the arrow. This means that you can vary the degree of damage at your discretion.
For example, you put the gun controller at supersonic speed - and the bullet will make a neat hole in the opponent's hand that can be plastered with a plaster. If you set the subsonic speed, the arm will tear off completely.
Another advantage of the Gauss gun is the noiselessness of the shot at subsonic speeds. Whoever had to shoot at bad people knows perfectly well that each case requires a special patron. For silent shooting - subsonic with a weighted bullet at 9 mm. For the battle on 300-400 meters, there will be enough conventional ammunition 5,45. At a distance of 1000 and more meters, you already need 7,62 rifle cartridges or in general a large-caliber machine gun 12,7 mm. The return from the last ammunition is such that it breaks the butt of the collarbone and twists the shoulder. You need to be a healthy fleshy peasant, in order to take up arms at all.
For Gun Gauss, everything is the same - and kill someone silently, and shoot at 1200 meters. Know yourself a lever of power change. With this almost no return, even a baby can shoot. Entering school, a former baby can assemble Gauss-gan from improvised materials - he will have enough elementary knowledge of physics for this.
Gauss guns can be used even to launch light satellites into Earth's orbit. For the Russian space industry, this is more than relevant, and our scientists are already working in this direction.
Representatives of the Russian Academy of Sciences said that they managed to disperse a projectile of the same railgun to acceleration at 11 kilometers per second. This is enough to overcome the gravity of the Earth and enter its orbit. For an exit in an open space there is no absolutely slightly. During training shooting, Russian scientists faced the same problems as Americans: the "barrel" of the railgun wears out quickly.
In the midst of this feast of knowledge and scientific breakthroughs, the Americans suddenly declare that they are winding down the project, handing over the keys to their employees and going home. Forever.
As the specialized edition Task & Purpose writes referring to sources in the Congress, the railgun was to accelerate the projectile to 8 thousand kilometers per hour, and with a flight range of 160 kilometers, but the current figures are twice worse despite the 500 million dollars invested in the project since 2005 of the year. Now the project will be rolled up for something more promising, for example, radio electronic.
In fact, whoever turns what is there is not known. Now there is a second series of the Cold War, at this time no one can be trusted. In Soviet times, Americans have often deceived our defense industry: they will give information that they have made incredible progress in some area and are waiting for Soviet scientists to spend a lot of people's money and finally find out that research is leading to a dead end. It happens and vice versa: something is declared to be unpromising and quietly is being finalized to the state of combat readiness.
Americans can be trusted, one can not believe. But the very logic of life will still force gunsmiths to create powerful railguns and Gauss-gans. Let and a little later than it seemed until recently.