It is an exponential change in public sentiment recorded by sociologists: the number of opponents of the death penalty in the Russian society has increased significantly. The views expressed version of the experts that it was the cause of such a noticeable softening of social mores, diverge.
In recent years 15 in Russia twice increased the number of supporters of the extension of the moratorium on the death penalty - from the 12 25% to%. For the complete abolition of the death penalty act 16% of Russians (in 2002 year there were 12%). This follows from the study, "Levada-Center", said on the eve of "Interfax".
It becomes less of those who offer to "restore the death penalty on the former scale (as it was in the early 90-ies)." Now these 32%, and was 2002 49% in the year. During the expansion of the death penalty in favor 12% of the respondents, in 2002 year there were 19%.
"We have a decree of the president, we have the decision of the Constitutional Court on this issue, so a de facto death penalty we have, it is not only applicable, but she imposed (by the court) can not", - quotes agency the chairman of the Duma Committee on State Building and legislation Pavel Krasheninnikov. Earlier Krasheninnikov has repeatedly called for all removed from the Criminal Code references to the execution, "because it still has not."
What happens to the Russian society? Why require the death penalty was much less?
Version One: "have not been a major terrorist attack"
Deputy Yury Krasheninnikov Sinel'shchikov (CPRF), Honored Lawyer of Russia and former deputy prosecutor of Moscow acknowledges that changing attitudes in society.
"All the more popularized the ideas and arguments of opponents of the death penalty. Therefore, the process is quite natural. The absence of such a punishment I would call a sign of a civilized society. This is a sign that society is becoming more tolerant culture, "- he told the newspaper VIEW.
Opponents of the death penalty, sooner or later will become the majority, allows the MP. "No terrorist attacks - this is important. Episodes with serial pedophiles began to meet much less, "- explains the MP.
Former head of the Synodal Department for Church Archpriest Vsevolod Chaplin uses a similar argument. "My opinion is that, thank God, no recent major terrorist attacks occurred," - said Chaplin VIEW newspaper.
Version Two: "Accustomed"
The deputy director, "Levada-Center" Alexei Grazhdankin believes that "the morals of the people softened", which "largely contributed to a reduction in crime after 2000 years," said the newspaper "Kommersant" the sociologist. He noted that the total number of supporters and opponents of execution "almost equal", remarking that 44% pro-death penalty - it is still a serious figure.
His colleague on the "Levada-Center" Karina Pipia in conversation with the newspaper LOOK noted: the growing number of opponents of the death penalty is "smooth", but steadily - of 20 years moratorium on the death penalty is retained dynamics. "Of course, Russians are accustomed to the absence of the death penalty as such," - Pipia said.
"If things continue the way they are, then, of course, entirely predictable that this share will continue to decline. If suddenly there will be any exceptional circumstances in which it turns out that the death penalty in Russia is necessary, it is possible that public opinion will change vector ", - warned sociologist.
Version Three: growing legal consciousness
Unlike sociologists, a member of the HRO, human rights activist, lawyer Alexander Brod believes that the level of tension in society does not go down. An indicative example, he said, was a scandalous story in the Moscow subway that happened in early February, when two passengers who had been in a quarrel with each other fought and even bitten each other. "This absurd case shows the level of aggression of our citizens. But with respect to the highest measure, it is understood that this step does not solve the problem of crime. There are many other circumstances that will allow us to move towards the establishment of a law-based state, "Brod said.
"Practice shows that information in the press about brutal, cynical murders does not diminish," the human rights activist said. He explains the change in public opinion not by "softening morals", but by a gradual expansion of rational legal consciousness. "The discussion around this issue has been going on for a long time. There have been many reviews of experts, human rights defenders who proved that execution is not a solution to the problem. In addition, there may be abuses, given the lack of transparency in the law enforcement and judicial system, "Brod told VZGLYAD. He is sure that the mood of the society is influenced by the position of high-ranking officials who spoke on the moratorium on the death penalty.
Recall, President Vladimir Putin does not consider the death penalty the most effective means of eradicating crime. The head of state, for example, said this in 2013 in April on a straight line. The issue was raised in connection with the events in Belgorod, where previously the convicted Sergei Pomazun shot six people. "Sometimes, when faced with such things, the hand itself reaches for the pen to sign some documents aimed at the return of the death penalty, or ask deputies about it," Putin admitted then. "But we need to talk to specialists, criminologists." And experts believe that the toughening of punishment does not lead to eradication, to a decrease in the level of crime. "
Twenty years without shooting
In August it turned 20 years since the last execution of the death penalty in Russia. This was the second time in the history of the Russian state. The first time such a long time the country did without executions in the reign of Elizabeth - from November to December 1741 1761 years (old style). Thus, the Empress has already broken the record.
Vsevolod Chaplin also said that in Russia, unlike the West, there were no religious wars, although cases of prolonged non-use penalty is also not much. "Its legitimacy is not contested, and even confirmed including theological authorities" - recalled Fr. As a historical example, he recalled the actions of Apostolic Holy Prince Vladimir, who first abolished the penalty, "but then brought it back under the influence of Christian bishops."
But in general, he said, in Western Europe have resorted to the death penalty more often than in Russia. For example, during the Great French Revolution guillotined exposed to a huge number of people. "We may recall the earlier centuries. Mass executions are better known in Europe than in Russia. Something similar happened when Ivan the Terrible. Notable cruelty and Peter the Great, but in general, with the kings executed much less than in other European countries ", - he concluded.