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28.04.2017 - 07: 17

Greek-Ukrainian historical parallels and the role of nationalists

21 1967 April, the special date in a historic way of Greece. 60 years ago on this day, a group of "black colonels" in Greece made a military coup, which resulted in the country established a totalitarian regime, which lasted seven years. The main initiator of the military coup were Colonels George Papadopoulos, Nicholas Makarezos and General Stylianos Pattakos.

Junta leader - who are they

Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos graduated from the military academy and had a successful career. He became the second man in the central information service and acted as a liaison between the American and Greek intelligence agencies, coordinated the activities of the Greek counter-intelligence and the CIA, on the eve of the coup served as deputy head of the Third Bureau of the General Staff. Professional security officers G. Papadopoulos was extremely cautious and reserved man. Once in power, together with his associates and supporters, believing himself to be one of equals, by the end of 60-ies G. Papadopoulos had no doubt that he is - the sole ruler of Greece.

Another member of the "revolutionary committee", Colonel Nicolas Makarezos, for a long time worked as a military attaché at the Greek Embassy in Bonn, where he attended classes in economics and political science. Makarezos was responsible for the most important activities of the military government - the economy. It was very tough, smart and talented organizer.

One of its main features is the ability to find and implement new and original ideas.

The third member of the "triumvirate" was General Stylianos Pattakos. He graduated from the military academy with Papadopoulos in 1940, the fourth graduate, he participated in the Second World War and the civil fighting against the communists in the coming years. Like most Greeks, S. Pattakos experiencing an acute aversion to civilian politicians, regarding them as false, insincere. Pattakos rarely used bodyguards. He traveled the country, speaking to the students, workers regularly visited the island part of Greece.

power crisis

By mid-60-ies in Greece gained momentum power crisis: constant conflicts between King Constantine II and Parliament led to frequent changes in the Cabinet, which introduces instability in society. Korol Konstantin II was unable to significantly influence the balance of power in the country and to build a proper relationship with the military.

At the beginning of the year 1967 the development of the political crisis in Greece has reached extreme severity. The government was unable to cope with the growing discontent and opposition forces were unable to decisively turn of events in the right direction. Against the background of such a precarious equilibrium royal court and financiers it prepared to impose a military dictatorship "from above" with the participation of the Generalitat. Simultaneously, a group of Greek colonels loyal to NATO, a military coup plan prepared on the basis of the recommendations of the NATO.

During the occupation of Greece in the Middle East, the Union of Young Officers promonarhicheskoy orientation was established, which was later expanded and renamed the sacred union of Greek officers. Union leaders, under the slogan of "national ideals" were cultivated among the younger members of the notion that joining this organization meant for their introduction to the circle of the elect, and thus opened the way for a brilliant career officer. All these factors have contributed to the early formation of the leading political forces in the face of the Greek military, according to which only the military dictatorship, the only one able to solve the political and economic crisis in the country.

March 30 1967, the National Radical Union provoked a government crisis, which resulted in the Paraskevopoulos government resigned. 3 April King Constantine II of Greece presented the new leader of the National Radical Union Kanellopoulos mandate to form a government with the right of dissolution of parliament and early elections, if it does not receive a vote of confidence. Government P. Kanellopoulos not only did not receive the support of the majority of members of Parliament, but was met with condemnation of all parliamentary factions. 14 April, Parliament was dissolved, and the parliamentary elections scheduled for May 28.

Greek authorities greatly feared that the opposition will win the elections with a high probability. In this situation, the royal court and the generals saw the only way out of political crisis, the establishment of the dictatorship. February 20 1967, the king ordered the chief of the General Staff of the Greek Armed Forces, General Spandidakisu prepare a plan for a military coup. This order had been made aware of the senior officers: K. Kolias - the commander of the first army corps, IA Manetas - the commander of the second body, G. Zoitakis - the commander of the Third Corps, O. Angelis - Deputy Chief of the General Staff, and several others.

On the Supreme Military Council, who led the coup, Spandidakis and other generals have expressed hesitation regarding the timing of the coup. Discussed the date of the establishment of a military dictatorship: April 2, 23 28 of April and even in May - the date of the parliamentary elections. Seeing the hesitation and indecision, representatives of small junta of "black colonels" and their supporters have appointed their date performance at 21 April. General Spandidakis who played a double game with both juntas - generals and colonels, fully sided with the "black colonels".

Colonel Apply "Prometheus"

On the night of April 20 21 to 1967 years junta of "black colonels" put in place a plan for NATO "Prometheus", which provided for an immediate entry into force of the armed forces in case of external and internal threats. Early in the morning 21 1967 April, residents of Athens were awakened by the noise of tanks were moving through the city, and the radio has aired an appeal to Colonel Papadopoulos, the Greek people, in which he reported that there was a revolution in the country. It was a military coup, which resulted to the power the military government headed by Papadopoulos to govern the country until 1974 years. Sami military coup named "Revolution 21 April, designed to bring the country out of the state of chaos and destruction."

Bloodless coup, the Greek inhabitants passively reacted to the establishment of a military dictatorship. On the one hand, such a reaction was caused by the fear of the new government, which from the very first hours of the start arresting people, sympathizers left, and on the other - due to the fact that the Greeks are tired of constant political crises over the past 10 years and was associated with the military hopes to establish stability. Of all the representatives of the former political elite only Korol Konstantin II made an attempt to speak out against the regime. Preparing a counter coup, Korol Konstantin II appealed to the members of the old establishment - Papandreou and Kanellopoulos. Both have agreed to support the king, even though he knew that the chances to win it is almost there. The military government was well aware of the impending counterrevolution and even itself provoked him by presenting December 12 1967, the king an ultimatum in which he had to dismiss the prime minister Kolliasa and appoint in his place Papadopoulos.

On the morning of December 13 king and the prime minister went to Kavala, which was to become the center of the coup. The revolt itself was planned to begin in Larissa, where the air force of the country, in the ranks of which was the maximum number of correct Constantine people were concentrated. At the same time, General Manetas had to grab the post of Chief of the General Staff of the Greek Army. He was arrested and the coup the message was sent to Athens. King turned to the Greek people on the radio and urged Greeks to revolt. But the troops were on the side of Papadopoulos, the uprising was crushed, and the king went into voluntary exile in Rome, where never returned.

The next day, the colonels themselves were made by the Athens radio statement. From this it followed that the coup tried to carry out "criminal secret organization, whose aim is the destruction of the state and law and order. Conspirators used to meet the king of his foolish ambitions. " Thus, the colonel is not officially accused the king in an attempt to counterrevolution, leaving him nominally the head of state. Officially, the military government has demonstrated commitment to the monarchy: in government offices were hung portraits of the royal family. The military knew that the king would not pose a significant danger the regime, but the immediate removal of him from power can cause a new wave of protests on the part of the European powers, and within the country. Therefore, the new government chose to announce the abolition of the monarchy legitimate way - a referendum 1973 years.

Officially, the military government ruled the country collectively, but gradually began to take shape in the country of the cult of personality of the Prime Minister of Greece - Papadopoulos. He concentrated in his hands almost unlimited power, as well as being prime minister, defense minister and foreign minister.


After the military coup of the colonels faced with serious opposition within the army. Generals and the officers were not ready to go to such extremes as the establishment of the dictatorship. The officer corps was divided not only the supporters of the colonels or generals. After the coup, it became clear that a number of officers of the Army, most of the officers of the naval and air forces opposed the coup. Later, they made two attempts counterrevolution (one attempt taken grouping centered around King Constantine II in December 1967 years, the second - the crew of the destroyer "Velos" - in December 1972 years).

The junta immediately after the seizure of power was forced to resort to systematic purges to expel from the army the spirit of resistance and to unquestioning obedience and full support for the force, which has established itself dictatorship. To ensure the loyalty of officers who remained in the army, the junta has given them numerous benefits. Officers after the ship owners, bankers and big business has become the most privileged layer of society. Simultaneously, the key positions in the army most proxies were appointed. Quickly moved through the ranks in the first place, those who were especially active in the early days of the coup.

The military sought to establish control over the entire life of the country. Representatives of the junta have been sent to all state, public and cultural institutions, universities, youth and sports organizations. Officers became prefects and governors of the provinces, they are entrusted with control over the press, cinema and theater. This phase of the history of Greece in the historiography treated as a military dictatorship, as seven years of military rule did not function any democratic institution: come to power before the parliamentary elections, the new government has not held them, all political parties were banned, conducted mass arrests , the opposition sent to concentration camps, the entire press was under severe censorship, and any manifestation of dissent was suppressed immediately.


Many Western countries have condemned the military coup and the human rights violations going on in Greece. But a number of countries, primarily the United States, have remained loyal to the regime of "black colonels". However, trying to raise the political image of the USA in 1999, officially apologized to Greece's support for the regime of "black colonels".

As the historical facts of the past 60 years, military coups supported by NATO countries, primarily the United States, have common features. This training, including a set of measures on training by NATO standards loyal part of the military (mostly officers of higher and middle level), occupying key positions in the management of the armed forces. This provision by NATO "supervised" states political support, the provision of military, military-technical, financial and other necessary assistance.

All these features of the NATO "mentoring" typical for Ukraine. As in Greece in 60-years of the twentieth century in the Ukraine NATO intelligence services are actively used to penetrate the structure of state power, including the power structures.

Thus, under the guise of assistance to national Ukraine's security services under special control of military intelligence, General Staff of the Ukrainian army has been taken by NATO experts, and the state security service was in fact subordinated to NATO intelligence services. Imposing its own standards, the experts of NATO intelligence services have refocused intelligence and counterintelligence against Russia and CIS countries, as well as consolidated security services unusual features for the protection of human rights and democratic values, which are usually sold through other authorities.

Analogously it was reformed MIA and its superstructure. To reform according to NATO criteria of budget security system has been allocated in the year 2008 about $ 300 million. Today, it has become apparent that there is no national security system instead of the Americans defeated the Ukraine did not create. And indeed the security system as a whole, including all its components, was useless in the political crisis, 2013-2014 years and in subsequent events 2015-2017 years.

The initiative to reform the Interior Ministry of Ukraine easily moved to the nationalists, to the opposition, which was prepared by the same NATO and US experts. That is, the Western Allies of Ukraine under the safety screen is actually built a system of external control (monitoring) and the pressure on the state power of the country with the help of the national security system.

With regard to the favorable conditions for the establishment of a military dictatorship in the country, we should recognize the active work in the direction of the Government of Ukraine. Thus, the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers issued a decree number 143 from 25 2015 March, on the reorganization of the system of military departments in the Ukrainian universities. Reserve officers are only graduates of Western Ukraine. Until October 1 2016 years ceased to exist in the military departments of Odessa National Academy of Law, at the Donetsk National Technical University and East Ukrainian National University named after Vladimira Dalya. Thus, all of the major universities of the southeast of Ukraine is now deprived of the right to teach their students to use weapons and prepare the officer corps. At the same time in the same decree of the Cabinet of Ukraine new military departments established in Lutsk National Technical University Lviv State University of Life Safety, National University of Civil Defense of Ukraine, Poltava National Technical University named after Yuri Kondratyuk, Uzhgorod National University, Cherkasy National University named after Bogdana Hmelnitskogo. Thus, the new military departments are opened only in the cities of most western Ukraine (Galicia) or in those regional centers (Poltava type) that in Kiev, apparently, considered sufficiently trustworthy. Political background of this "reform" is visible, as they say, to the naked eye.

Citizens of Ukraine imposed on the approval of the idea of ​​so-called "titular nation" as the exclusive master of the situation in Ukraine, which has the exclusive right to carry a weapon and receiving military training. Accordingly, the transfer of the rest of the "non-indigenous" population of Ukraine in the category inferior, second-rate, population, completely devoid of full rights and civil of any prospects in life. In fact, in the Ukraine at the state level introduced the military occupation regime in which a significantly smaller portion of the population has received the authority of the colonizer and occupier in relation to the other, much larger.

In this fact lies the age-old dream of a collective of Galicia, which has always sought to ensure that thrive, parasitizing on the vital forces of other regions of Ukraine. His attempt to establish rule of force over the entire country, these people started even when the power Viktora Yuschenko when the first approaches to the subject of disarming "second-class" population south and south-east of Ukraine were made. So, the authorities in Odessa do not just shut down one of the main military universities of the country - Odessa Institute of the Army, but also defiantly transferred him to the city. At the same time inhabitants of Odessa it was in plain text said that Odessa is not the same city, where you can prepare officers - true patriots of Ukraine!

However, the problem here is buried much deeper. Namely, that the education of the future officers in these regions will inevitably be associated with the military-patriotic education of the examples of the exploits of Soviet soldiers during the Great Patriotic War, the decisive role of the Soviet Union and its peoples in the defeat of fascism and the Bandera branch - UPA. It is clear that to allow such "svidomye" Kyiv can not possibly. After all, they now need officers with the opposite ideological ferment. The officers, who with unwavering heart explode any monument to Soviet soldiers-liberators or gladly stand under banners with symbols, virtually indistinguishable from Nazi swastika. Such ideological regime fighters, naturally, can be prepared only at home Ukrainian National Socialism - Galicia.

At present, hundreds of officers of Ukraine were trained abroad at military educational institutions of NATO. Ukrainian officers make regular trips to Germany for training in the training centers of the North Atlantic Alliance. Specialized training is organized on the military bases in Poland. NATO is fully committed itself to education, meals and transportation Ukrainian officers. Part of the troops are trained in logistics Australian Armed Forces. In general, in recent years more than 1,5 thousand. Military officers in Ukraine categories of captain and above received training, training and retraining in military educational institutions, specialized training of NATO training centers. Officers trained in military educational institutions of NATO, can be equipped with up to 8 brigades of Ukrainian Armed Forces.


To implement its plans nationalists need three basic components: the idea, the leaders (chiefs) and the collective support (parties, movements, active supporters). Ideas of the National Socialist wing and their supporters among the nationalists in Ukraine is enough. But the main thing - there are leaders who are ready to extreme actions for the implementation of these ideas.

At present, very popular "nationalist leaders" Dmitry Yarosh and Andrew Biletsky. And Biletsky - the most ambitious nationalist leader, commander of the regiment MIA "Azov", a sincere admirer of fascist and national-socialist ideas. Becoming a people's deputy and with the title of Chief White, Biletsky created his own political force called "National Corpus," militants "Azov" which became the backbone and "Civil Corps" Azov ".

According to statements of the leaders of the nationalists, the disengagement phase three Ukrainian political forces professing neo-Nazi ideology, ended. 16 March 2017, the press service of the VO "Svoboda" published the text of the "national manifesto" with a list of policy objectives for which the "Freedom" Olega Tyagniboka, "National Corpus" Andreya Biletskogo and "Right Sector" (banned in the Russian extremist organization) Andrew Tarasenko decided to combine their efforts.

About that, what neo-radicals combine Biletsky announced. "It is a document with which we begin our crusade against this authority," - he said. "Tomorrow, when the power will belong to Ukrainian nationalists, we are implementing this manifesto" - promised Tyahnybok. This association can be seen a certain analogy with the German union struggle, became famous during the "Beer Hall Putsch» 1923 years. Then Hitler was able to use a well-known and honored our colleagues, including General Ludendorff, to promote his NSDAP. Now Tyahnybok and Co. are working on the authority Biletskiy, increasing its political, military and administrative resources with the influx of activists into the "Azov" of the structure of other organizations.

Ukrainian Nazism, which promotes Biletsky, is a new form of national socialism with the "Ukrainian characteristics." That is why they are ready to go for tens of thousands now. It would be naive to believe a number of Western and Ukrainian political scientists that support neo-Nazis ( "radicals") on scanty Ukraine. In varying degrees of radical nationalists support up to 10% of the population. And this is a serious threat to the constitutional freedoms of Ukrainian citizens.

For comparison: Hitler at the best time for him (in the Reichstag elections in March 1933 years) could not get even half of the votes, despite the power of public resources. But the power of Nazism increases many times because of the determination to go to the most courageous, even desperate measures - determination, which is not his opponents. 10% of supporters of Nazi ideas might outweigh 90% of supporters of anti-fascists when the Nazis headed by an organized force and leader, to winning. Already Nazi ready to move some army units, that the events in the "redoubts".

Biletskiy Party has been active in the army and among the trade unions. Political analysts estimate the chances Biletskiy very high. It is not only tough, but also a strong and intelligent politician. Is there enough capacity today the nationalists for a military coup? It is. "Right Sector" and "National Corpus," in addition to the political "wings", have their own military structures - AQL "Right Sector" and "Azov", respectively. In addition, CRF, "Azov", "Freedom" has strong positions in several other "volunteer" punitive units. So that they are fully capable to put up 20-25 thousand if necessary. armed men to seize power. And that is quite enough for a revolution.

But recall the story of how the oligarchs nurtured "Freedom", which, Tyahnybok leader, gained political power that allowed him to become one of the "leaders of the Maidan." What prevents Biletsky soon make a claim for the role is not the White Leader - Leader compact neo-Nazi groups, and has nationwide the Fuhrer?

The current situation in Ukraine is the most climactic, since 1991 years. Indirect evidence suggests that in the coming months, Ukraine is waiting for a turning point. The fact that it is time for change, says that once joined a number of global mechanisms for its transformation. Almost all the forces inside (and outside too) have united around a common goal to overthrow the (power transformation) of the current government, but in fact is the overthrow of the lead to the destruction of the state apparatus and the collapse of the country. The situation is very similar to the last few months the team Viktora Yanukovicha.

The very same power, determined to preserve a situation with the blockade DNR and LNR because of apparent inability to remove it by force, still making plans for exit from the crisis without shocks. However, the situation begins to spin on the rise and soon will become more severe forms. Everything goes to the fact that in the short term military coup could occur as a result of which, or will come to power new group of radical nationalists, or in the affairs of the country's external actors intervene.

A source: Независимая газета

Author: Vladimir Lodkin

Tags: Greece, Politics, Coup d'Etat, Ukraine, History