Last Saturday in Syria came into force an agreement on the creation of a "de-escalation areas", after Russia, Iran and Turkey signed a memorandum in Astana. Representatives of the Syrian armed opposition left the negotiations. They said they could not accept the creation of "safe zones" in Syria, because it poses a threat to its territorial integrity. In addition, representatives of the opposition objected to Iran's participation in this agreement. They believe that Iran is a country-occupier, and therefore it should withdraw its armed forces from Syria.
In accordance with this agreement in Syria created four zones of reducing tension in which the planned cessation of hostilities and shelling: in Idlib province and in the neighboring regions (Latakia, Hama and Aleppo), in the areas to the north of the province of Homs, in the eastern Huta in areas of southern Syria (Dar and Quneitra province). This agreement is aimed at the suspension of the conflict to be able to provide assistance to the Syrians, who are subjected to violence and famine in the last seven years. Reducing violence can contribute to serious negotiations on the future of Syria.
This agreement calls mixed feelings among local, regional and international forces due to the Russian vision of the concept and mechanisms for creating a "de-escalation areas". Russia proposes suspension of hostilities between the parties, which implies a cease-fire in these areas and a ban on military flights. However, the Russian president in a statement said that these rules will apply in the absence of any military activity in these areas. And it does not mean that the fight against terrorist organizations will be discontinued. He explained that the fight against terrorist organizations "LIH" (banned in Russia - ed. ed.) and "Fatah al-Sham" will continue even after the establishment of these zones.
Russian proposal to create a "safe zone" is different from all the previous proposals that were put forward for many years and served as a subject of endless debate at the international level. Especially it concerns the proposals of Turkey, which proposed to create a buffer zone in Syria. Such a proposal requires the approval of the Security Council and the decision to impose a ban on air flights, as well as the presence of the necessary military forces on the ground to prevent attacks on civilians. While the Russian proposal on the establishment of buffer zones does not require international approval or the presence of armed forces on the territory of Syria. Special Envoy of the Russian President on the settlement in Syria, the head of the Russian delegation at the talks in Astana Aleksandra Lavrentev said that the guarantor countries cease-fire in Syria will inform the UN Security Council to create "zones of de-escalation" in Syria, noting that no sanctions of the Security Council decision-making not required. Alexander Lavrentiev said that de-escalation in the Syrian area closed to aviation operations of the international coalition led by the US and the guarantor countries intend to closely monitor all actions in this direction.
The establishment of zones of reducing tension will lead to the expansion of the territory, which is defined as an area of "ceasefire", which borders agreed upon by all parties to armed conflict. The establishment of such zones would lead to the suspension of hostilities and the establishment of security in preparation for the arrival of humanitarian aid and evacuate the wounded, as well as serve as the beginning of the process of peaceful settlement of the conflict.
The signing of the armistice agreement, which served as a guarantor of Russia, Iran and Turkey, is cautiously optimistic. It has shown the ability of Russia to reach agreement with major regional players and the international community. Russia's success in getting the international and American support for the signing of an agreement to reduce tension marks a new stage in the settlement of the Syrian conflict.