Throughput of Russian seaports first time in history exceeded the mark 700 million tons per year, but this is not the limit. New infrastructure, new ships, as well as the overall situation in the global markets will ensure that the growth of this indicator will continue despite the fact that Russia has committed itself to reduce oil production.
According to the Association of Russian seaports, the total turnover of the sector in the year amounted to 2016 721,9 million tons, an increase of 6,7%. Falling value of the foreign trade turnover (according to the latest data, in January - November 2016, he was reduced to 13,4% to 422,8 billion dollars) had no effect on the volume of goods that are rolled over to Russian ports. Over the past decade has not been a single case when their cargo turnover would have been lower than in the previous year, as a whole, 2006-2016 till the year it increased by 77,4%.
Doubling of Arctic oil
The most significant growth in turnover 2016 year - once on 40,6% - showed the ports of the Arctic basin, to offer a step from level 50 million tons. The key to such a high growth was the increase of liquid cargo in 2,2 23,1 times to million tons, which is comparable to last year the volume of transshipment of dry cargo in the Russian Arctic (26,6 million tons).
This increase was made possible primarily thanks to the commissioning of the raid transshipment complex "Nord" on the basis of floating storage "Umba" in the port of Murmansk. Through this storage tanker can transship about 12 million tons of oil per year, and the raw material comes from two "Gazprom oil" deposits: Novoportovskoye Prirazlomnoe Yamal and offshore Sea Caves. In January last year, "Umba", based on the Japanese shipyard Hitachi Zosen, replaced the still floating storage - "Belokamenka", who worked for years 15.
The launch of the new transshipment complex allowed to increase the turnover of the Murmansk port by one and a half times to 33,4 million tons, while Nord itself for 11 months received about 7,42 million tons of oil, due to what Murmansk entered the top ten Russian ports for transshipment of bulk cargo. This is not the limit. Prospects for further increase in oil transshipment are related to the plans of Sovcomflot, which ordered six ice-class tankers for delivery of black gold from the Ob Bay and the Prirazlomnaya platform to Murmansk. These vessels are able to work all year round in the Arctic at temperatures up to -45 degrees. The main ship of the "Navigator-Albanov" series was launched last March, its cargo capacity is about 38 thousand tons of oil, this is twice as much as that of Arc5 class tankers, which have been operating in the Arctic for a long time.
In addition to oil in Murmansk, the handling of mineral cargo through the local bulk terminal, which was acquired by the Russian holding company EuroChem, one of the world leaders in the fertilizer market, increased noticeably. Already on the basis of the results of seven months of 2016, the terminal processed 3 million tons of cargo, showing more than a twofold increase in comparison with the same period of the previous year. The new owner continued modernization of the terminal's facilities: in the middle of last year, a new Neva-1500 shiploader was commissioned, the first in its class, and designed and manufactured in Russia.
Double-digit growth rates (21,6%) showed last year, and Arctic oil port of Varandey in the Nenets Autonomous District, 8 million tons handled. Even in 2014, LUKOIL, which owns the terminal, announced plans to increase its turnover of up to 10 million tons, primarily due to increased production at the nearby field Trebs and Titov field name, which is holding Vagit Alekperov develops together with Bashneft. As a result of two years growth of the volume of oil handled through Varandey, increased by almost 3 million tons.
Expansion of coal "window"
The second most important contribution was made by the Far East, where total turnover harbors rose to 8,3 185,5% million tonnes. It was also recorded some increase in transshipment of liquid bulk cargo (+ 2,1% to 74,5 million tons), but the volume of dry cargo grew much larger: to 13% to 111 million tons.
As the most important export product of the Far Eastern ports in 2016, the established coal. For example, the port of Vanino in the Khabarovsk region already in the first nine months, reported that the biggest increase - by almost half - showed exactly transshipment of coal for export. Coal Posiet port in the Primorye Territory, part of the structure of "Mechel" of the holding, in the past year increased transshipment to 26,6% to 8,2 million tons.
One of the factors increase the traffic was the opening of access to the port facilities of coal exporters at the end of the year 2015. As a result, the Far East could make a significant contribution to the increase of export of Russian coal - on the basis of 11 months 2016 years it has increased by 13,2% in January - November 2015-th (up to 149,5 million tonnes), primarily due to the recovery in the world market prices.
After the construction of a number of new coal terminals is completed, the volumes of shipment of Russian coal through the Far Eastern ports will grow even more significantly. 2016 year turned out to be very fruitful for such projects. So, in Primorsky Krai, the group "Summa" Ziyavudin Magomedov reported on the plans for the development of the coal terminal "Sever" in the port of Vostochny. About the readiness to complete the third stage of its terminal already in 2017, another operator of the Eastern one said: The managing port company. In the Khabarovsk Territory, the terminals of Daltransugol and Sakhatrans, which are being built in the Muchka bay of Vanino, can be sent to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region for export to 24 million tons of coal per year.
By the way, in October of "Daltransugol", part of the holding SUEK, shipped to the fleet 100-millionth ton of coal by installing the Far East ports record over the past eight years. The total turnover of the port of Vanino, according to the Association of Russian seaports grew by 11,6% last year, surpassing the mark of 30 million tons.
Export boosts growth
According to the head of the research agency InfraNews Alexei Bezborodov, a major source of growth in Russian ports turnover will further increase exports. The need for this forms the fallen exchange rate - an increase in exports keeps its value.
Good prospects Bezborodov sees primarily in the coal sector and container handling, which in 2016, almost reached the level 4 million TEU (conditional container units), which exceeds the year 2015 1,4%. However, the weight of the container turnover increased immediately to 2,5 million tonnes, and turnover grew laden and unladen fell.
At the same time, some stabilization is expected in the export of liquid cargo in connection with Russia's obligations to reduce oil production, but there may also be a redistribution of flows in the direction of China, which again will benefit from the ports of the Far East. This trend was observed already in 2016, when the handling of petroleum products in the port of St. Petersburg fell significantly (by 32,3%), and its total cargo turnover decreased by 5,6% to 48,6 million tons. At the same time, oil transshipment in the port of De-Kastri in the Khabarovsk Territory increased significantly, the cargo turnover of which increased by 10,4% to 11,5 million tons (in 11 months of last year this port took the eighth place in Russia for liquid bulk transhipment).
Finally, the fourth consecutive year, the Russian port market can count on such an important driver, as the ferry across the Kerch Strait, as shown in last year's decent gains. Throughput of the port of Kavkaz, where ferries depart for the Crimea, in the year 2016 8,8% increased (up to 33,2 million tons), and the port of Kerch - to 22,4% (up to 9,6 million tons). However, after a couple of years, with the opening of the bridge to the Crimea, so the high dynamics in these ports will disappear naturally, it resembles Bezborodov.