The next decade will pass under the sign of "the revival of the Russian space science," says the American scientific journal Science. Moscow is preparing a number of projects - in the plans, and exploration of the Moon, and the conquest of Mars, and breakthroughs in astrophysics. Even cutting oil budget against the backdrop of sanctions and low prices can not curb the enthusiasm of Russian space scientists.
When launched in November 1996, the Russian interplanetary station "Mars-96» fallen apart, this loss overshadowed the entire Russian space science. "All and felt useless" - conveys the mood of the time director of the Space Research Institute RAS Leo Green. Today, Russia hopes to "dispel the gloom" due to fly to the unknown planets. However, budget cuts pulls the revival of the Russian space science back to Earth, Science notes. The material resulting InoTV.
The approved budget for the ten-year government covering all of the costs for the maintenance of the International Space Station to the meteorological and navigation satellites and manned stations for space exploration, was much less than expected. At low oil prices Roskosmos was forced to cut costs with 3,4 trillion rubles. to 1,4 trillion.
Урезание космического бюджета поставило под угрозу российскую программу по исследованию Луны. Россия не была на Луне со времён космической гонки с США, напоминает издание. Советский Союз вырвался вперёд, запустив станции «Луна-1» и «Луна-2», которые стали первыми в истории аппаратами, приземлившимися на поверхность спутника Земли. «Времена, когда мы соревновались с Америкой, были по-настоящему отличными для нашей науки», — считает Лев Зелёный. Но победа в «лунной гонке» осталась за США. С тех пор дорогостоящие программы Москвы и Вашингтона забуксовали. Последней советской лунной станцией стала запущенная в 1976 году «Луна-24».
The interest in the Moon originated in Russia again in 2009, when equipped with Russian-made neutron detector NASA lunar orbital probe entered the moon's orbit. Then, on the surface of Earth's satellite Russian instrument discovered the frozen water. This discovery "rekindled dreams" of the Russian leadership of the conquest of the moon. Now, in the period from 2018-2025 year till Space Research Institute plans to launch to the moon 5 stations, the first of which will be "Luna-25».
Despite the revival of interest in lunar research, the astronauts will have some time to wait - the station manned flight because of the sanctions has been postponed, the magazine writes. According to Lev Green, such a project can be implemented only after 2025 years.
But the revival of the Russian space, there are two other "pillars" - the conquest of Mars and the development of astrophysics, Science notes.
In 2011, the "Phobos-Grunt" Russian automatic interplanetary station failed to leave Earth orbit - as a result, as "Mars-96", she completed her flight in the waters of the Pacific Ocean. Unsuccessful attempt to reach the Red Planet did not discourage Russian scientists. Now they are together with the European Space Agency on a program to study Mars' exomars ".
Russian astrophysicists are also ready to revive the magazine writes. In their plans for the launch in September 2017-th "Spektr-RG" - orbital astrophysical observatory, equipped with X-ray telescopes to study black holes and neutron stars. More unfulfilled Russian project already acquired great importance for the whole world after the failure of the Japanese orbiting X-ray telescope, emphasizes the importance of Science project.
Then follow "one of the most ambitious projects of the next decade", as it described the leading researcher of the Lebedev Physical Institute Nikolai Kolachevsky - "GAMMA-400». Astrophysical Observatory, whose launch is scheduled for the year 2022, will be engaged in the study of the nature of "dark matter" and the origin of high-energy cosmic rays.
However, in addition to the technical difficulties and funding problems, "Gamma-400" also suffers from international sanctions that hit the Russian after the "annexation" of Crimea. To create the necessary components of the observatory, which are also used for military purposes, such as materials that protect the space ship from radiation. Because of the sanctions, these materials are now difficult to obtain, regrets Kolachevsky.
Let the Russian economic realities and pushed the implementation of some space projects into the background, but still the first time after a Soviet-era Russian scientists look to the future with confidence and optimism, says Leo Green. "Even despite the fact that the scientists want to get much more than the country can afford, - he said - we have in the next ten years will be quite a lot of work."