In the spring of the year 2011 in Syria began protests and anti-government demonstrations, in just a few months grew into open conflict. The result of these events was the beginning of the civil war is still going on. Legitimate interests of the authorities in this conflict defend Syrian Armed Forces. In addition, certain army time to help a variety of local and foreign armed groups. Existing capacity, as well as assistance from friendly countries allow Damascus restrain the pressure of numerous enemy forces, as well as from time to time victories.
For a long time the civil war in Syria has turned into a confrontation between a large number of paramilitary organizations, armed groups, terrorist organizations, etc. As a consequence, a variety of structures can fight in different parts of the country to each other. So, on the Damascus side fighting the Syrian army, some of the militias and the military organization of Iran and Iraq. Considerable support the Lebanese organization "Hezbollah" and other groups in the region. Since the autumn of the year 2015 the Syrian army to help aerospace forces of Russia.
Syrian arrows on post
In difficult conditions, the ongoing civil war, the Syrian army was forced to make some reforms that have affected its structure. As a result, we have undergone significant changes and now meet the requirements more fully Syrian armed forces for several years. At the same time, however, certain problems of all kinds. Consider the current state of the Syrian army.
The basis of the Syrian armed forces, as previously, and are now the Army. Before the civil war, they observed some interesting trends. The basis of the army have been mechanized and armored divisions in the number 11 units. There were also two divisions of special forces. Light infantry units present in minor amounts, resulting in the corresponding consequences in terms of strategy.
Before the war in the Syrian Army serves about 325 thousand. human. In the fighting forces have suffered significant deadweight loss. In addition, some of the personnel defected, including joining the enemy formations. This has resulted in a marked reduction in size of the army. Currently, the Army had no more than 130-135 thousand. human. Such a reduction of the army, however, was to some extent offset by the creation of new voluntary organizations. With their help, we managed to increase the number of infantry compounds and at least partially restore the previously existing potential.
Tanks T-72 without any modification
The reduction of personnel and the loss of numerous military technology eventually led to a change in the structure of the army. Currently, as part of the Army has 6 armored divisions with a different composition, 4 2 mechanized divisions and infantry brigades. Also, the army has 2 2 artillery brigades and brigades, armed with anti-aircraft missile systems. Operational-tactical missile systems in service with the two respective teams.
A characteristic feature of the current conflict is the inability to determine the exact qualitative and quantitative composition of the fleet and the arms. Over the past six years, the Syrian army has lost a significant amount of material part: it was destroyed in the fighting or getting any enemy as a trophy. In addition, some samples changed owners several times. As a result, now you can only talk about the types of weapons / equipment, but not their number.
Armored divisions equipped with the technique of Soviet or Russian production of various types. In the ranks are still tanks of different modifications of the family T-55. There are also a few newer T-62. Thanks to Russian assistance to Syria operates a significant number of tanks T-72 different modifications and even relatively new T-90. At the disposal of mechanized units are infantry fighting vehicles BMP-1 / 2 and armored personnel carriers of almost all models of Soviet and Russian origin. Auxiliary equipment, such as for repair and recovery and command staff vehicles, installation clearance and etc. also have a Soviet / Russian origin.
One option artisanal modernization of armored vehicles
Similarly, things and artillery units. The Army has a self-propelled artillery systems of various types of caliber 57 to 152 mm. Part of this technique is a serial samples of foreign manufacture, whereas other machines manufactured in makeshift conditions of available technology. On self-propelled chassis mounted as guns or howitzers and mortars. While maintaining a large number of a variety of towed systems. Reactive artillery advantageously represented Soviet and Russian systems. There are different types of combat vehicles from BM-21 "Grad" to 9A52 "Twister." There was widespread towed launchers "type 63» China. In addition, the army loyal to Damascus, and the formation of active use of MLRS family of "Volcano", created in the course of the war.
Armed with two separate teams consist tactical missiles of several types. Syria still maintains legacy systems, such as the P-300, but there are newer complexes "Point". Also on the system is armed "Fateh" of Iranian production.
With the help of Russian supply infantry units were able to significantly upgrade the arsenals of antitank weapons. Obsolete ATRA 9P133 like "Baby" or 9P148 "Competition" in recent years, "Fagot" were supplemented complexes, "Metis", "Cornet", etc. For combating air targets infantry can use a portable anti-aircraft complexes of various models of family "Strela" and "Igla".
BMP-1 armed forces
The air defense of ground forces is armed like a missile and artillery systems. In addition, a few years ago it started to operate a combined missile and gun complexes "Carapace-S1". The basis of military defense in this case are complex "Buk" family of different models. SAM complemented receiver systems on the motor vehicle and a towed version. Until now, used self-propelled guns ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-57-2. There is a certain amount of towed systems guns ranging from 23 to 100 mm. Due to the nature of the current conflict, anti-aircraft guns are used solely as a means of fire support of ground forces. To this end, the available guns and assault rifles in initially towed performance often mounted on a chassis available.
It should be noted that the construction of new of military equipment of a destination using available components and products is one of the characteristics of the ongoing war. Commercial or military vehicles are the basis for "self-made" self-propelled artillery to the receiver or rocket weapons. Other equipment receives reservations and armament, becoming infantry combat vehicles. Serial samples of armored combat vehicles get extra protection, reducing the probability of hitting the common means. Certain features such modernization technique suggests that in some cases it is carried out on a kind of "serial" project.
For obvious reasons, to determine the number and types of military equipment handicraft production is not possible. Accurate information on this subject is not published, but find it difficult to assess a variety of factors. For example, in the Syrian army has completely samples may be previously constructed enemy and taken as a trophy.
A well-known example of "technical creativity": self-propelled gun on the chassis of GAZ "Sadko", armed with gun ZIS-2
In accordance with current trends of armies, Syria has adopted drones several types. This technique is mainly made in Iran.
As he has been forced to create a National Defense Force (PDF), the decline in the beginning of the year 2013 the number of army official Damascus. The composition of this structure has taken various independent groups and organizations loyal to the legitimate government. Soon everyone was assembled into a single structure with the subordination of the so-called National Committees. To date, including about 100 thousand in VAT. fighters. In order to improve the combat capability of the individual units, and all the forces as a whole as consultants and trainers involved experts of the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Also cooperate with government troops, some other volunteer formations - the so-called troops "Shabiha". Some of these organizations became part of the National Defense Forces, while others still retain some autonomy. According to various estimates, in the pro-government formations, outside the official structures, including up to 50 thousand. Man.
Launcher "Volcano" series on the chassis of the Russian manufacture.
Due to the specific characteristics of the civil war and the existing VAT restrictions "Shabiha", etc. mainly perform infantry functions, while operation of armored vehicles and other military vehicles remains a task for the military personnel. This approach has enabled compensate for the loss of personnel and raise the potential of the armed forces as a whole at an acceptable level.
Syrian Armed Forces have certain advantages over their enemies thanks to the preservation of the Air Force. In this form of the armed forces is no more than 15 thousand. Man, and of his personnel could be thrown on the solution of other combat missions, not involving the use of aircraft. The problem of the Syrian Air Force is a state of the art. According to various estimates, to make departures may be no more than 40% of aircraft and helicopters. In addition, regular losses further reduce the number of combat-ready machines.
According to reports, the Syrian Air Force have 4 Squadron, armed no more than 80 MiG-23 different modifications. This technique is used as fighters and fighter-bombers. The same number is armed squadron outdated Mig-21 in an amount 70-80 units. 5 armed squadron aircraft Su-22 (to 30-35) and Su-24 (not more 10-12). Fighter aircraft incorporates 2 Squadron, equipped with the MiG-29. Combat tasks can also be solved by helicopters Mi-25 and SA342L Gazelle.
Military transport aircraft has four squadrons, equipped with machinery of various types. At the disposal of the military, there are light passenger aircraft Dassault Falcon 20, and Yak-40, heavy transporters IL-76 and other types of equipment mainly of Soviet / Russian-built. Multipurpose helicopter Mi and Mi-8-17 equipped with six squadrons. Training of pilots is performed on the basis of a single squadron of aircraft L-39.
No more than 20 thousand. People listed in the defense forces. As part of this kind of troops before the war was 4 Division, armed with anti-aircraft missile systems S-75, 125-C and 2K12 "Cube". Furthermore, shelf 3 deployed using complexes C-200. Number of remaining in service systems, for obvious reasons, is unknown.
Syria maintains naval forces, but this branch of the armed forces is not actively involved in the war. In this regard, of 4 thousand. Soldiers of the fleet was transferred to the other troops to participate in combat. The navy Syria there are two patrol ships of the Soviet project 159, carrying artillery and torpedoes. It remains in operation for over two dozen Soviet missile boat construction and Iranian carrying missiles and P-15 C-802. There are also some light patrol boats.
The Syrian navy has three landing craft project 770 with transportation to 5-6 180 tanks or fighters. Torpedo forces represented 7 three types of ships exclusively Soviet-built. There is a small group of multi-purpose vehicles and boats and ships.
Earlier, Syria has used its naval aviation, however, according to some reports, some time available helicopters are idle without work because all their tasks were assigned to the Russian crew. In the ranks of the machine remains 4 28-Ka and Mi 6-14.
Coastal troops have missiles of several types. From the Soviet Union and the Russian system were obtained previously with missiles P-15M and P-35, and the complex "Bastion". In service onshore version of missiles C-802 China.
Withdrawn from active service the Mi-14 naval aviation
Please be aware that the Syrian armed forces are not the only party to the conflict on the side of the legitimate government. Official Damascus also support the National Defense Force, the numerous groups that are not party to the existing structures, etc. In addition, the major parties to the conflict are the military experts and soldiers of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards, as well as other international organizations. It plays an important role and the Russian group, provided, first of all, air and space forces. In this way, or that the success of pro-government participants in the war are the result of joint work of different structures and proper coordination of their action.
The civil war in Syria continues for about six years and, apparently, is still far from complete. Efforts were certain attempts to resolve the situation, the ceasefire, etc., but they are often faced with the desire of the various parties to the conflict, and even third-country nationals to receive their benefits. In such circumstances, the armed forces had to make a major change to its structure and refining the strategy and tactics in accordance with the characteristics of the conflict, the existing threats and capability. As a result, the updated structure of the army was created, as a whole, meets the requirements and is able to resist the enemy, but not delivered from a variety of problems.