The Divine Goodness was not content with contemplating Himself; it was necessary that the blessing spread, went on and on. God is inventing, first, the angelic and heavenly powers. And thought was a matter that was filled with the Word and perfected by the spirit. Thus the second serenity, the servants of the First Grace, took place. Since the first creatures were pleasing to Him, the other world is inventing it - material and visible; and this is a harmonious composition of heaven and earth, and what is between them, amazing by the beautiful qualities of each thing, and even more, worthy of surprise at the harmony of the whole.
Wishing to show all the wealth of Goodness, the artistic Word creates a living being in which invisible and visible nature is brought into unity, that is, creates a person, and taking the body from the already created substance, and from Himself investing life (which in the word of God is known as intelligent soul and image of God), creates as it were the second world, in the small - the great; supplies on earth another angel, a contemplator of visible nature, a mystery of the contemplated creature.St. Gregory the Theologian (113, 148).
The soul did not originate from the earth and not from the air, not from the water, not from the fire, not from the light, not from the sun, or from the cloud, or from any other substance or created being, visible or intelligible. From the most immaculate, eternal, incomprehensible, inexplicable, invisible, ugly, immortal, incorruptible, intangible, imperishable and disembodied nature of God, through divine inspiration our Godlike, God-inspired, God-like and God-created soul, having come from some source of life living and life-giving, being created by light, as if from the treasury of light, coming out of the mouth of God and being born out of a kind of ocean of eternal fragrance, like a breath of fragrance, and settling in Adam.The Monk Anastas Sinai. The word 3-e, Sergiev Posad, 1915, p. 15.
Thus, therefore, God created spiritual beings: I speak of the Angels and all the ranks in Heaven. For they, obviously, have a spiritual and incorporeal nature; incorporeal, however, I call it in comparison with the rudeness of substance, for only the Divine is truly unreal and incorporeal. Yet God created also sensual nature: the sky and the earth, and what lies between them. So, He created one nature as akin to Himself (for God's kindred nature is understandable to God and intelligible to the mind alone), while the other is separated from Him in all respects very far, since it is naturally accessible to the senses. It was necessary, according to St. Gregory [Theologian], speaking of God, that there would be a mixture of both of them - an example of superior wisdom and magnificence in relation to both natures, as if a certain connection of the visible and invisible nature. I say "proper", denoting the will of the Creator, for it is the most decent law and decree; and no one will say to the Creator: "Why did You create me this way?" For the potter has the power to prepare from his clay various vessels to prove his wisdom.
... God, with His own hands, creates man both from the visible and from the invisible nature both in His own image and likeness: the body having formed from the earth, the soul, endowed with reason and intelligence, giving it, through His "blasting", what we and we call the divine image, for the expression "in the image" means the reasonable and gifted free will, the expression "in the likeness" means similarity through virtue, as far as possible for man.
Further, the body and the soul were created at the same time, and not as Origen blathered, that one before, and the other after.
So God created man unhappy evil, direct, morally good, carefree, free from worries, very adorned with all virtue, blooming with all sorts of blessings - like a certain second world, small in great, - another angel mixed of two natures, an admirer, a spectator a visible creation dedicated to the mysteries of this creation, which is perceived by the mind, the king over what is on earth, subordinated to the high King, earthly and heavenly, transitory and
immortal, visible and comprehended by the mind, mean between majesty and insignificance, at the same time - spirit and flesh: the spirit by grace, flesh by reason of pride; one - so that he could live and glorify the Benefactor, the other - that he suffered and, suffering, be warned, and, being proud of greatness, was punished; a living being here, that is, in a real life, guided in a known way and passing to another place, that is, into the Age of Future; and - the highest degree of the sacrament! - due to his attraction to God, made by God; but made by God in the sense of participating in the Divine Light, and not because it passes into the Divine Essence.
God created him by nature - sinless and at will - independent. But I call the sinless not because he was not susceptible to sin, for only the Deity does not allow sin, but because the commission of sin was not conditioned by his nature, but rather by free will, that is, he had the opportunity to excel in good, receiving assistance from the Divine grace, as well as to turn from the beautiful and come to be in evil because of the possession of free will, with permission from God. For virtue is not done under compulsion.
So the soul is a living being, simple and incorporeal, by nature invisible to the bodily eyes, immortal, endowed with reason and mind, without form, using the body supplied with organs and delivering life and growth to it, and feelings, and a productive force that has a mind , not different in comparison with herself, but the purest part of it, for as an eye in the body, so the mind in the soul is one and the same; independent and gifted with the ability of desire, also the ability to act, changing, that is, possessing a too volatile will, because it was created, received all this naturally from the grace of the one who created it, from which it received both that which existed and what was such by nature.
... It must be known that man has in common with inanimate objects, and participates in the life of dumb essences, and has received the thinking of beings gifted with reason. For with inanimate objects it has a common in its body and because it is connected from four elements, and with plants both in this respect, and from the power of feeding and growing, and containing a seed or capable of giving birth; with the same wordless beings has in common, and in this, and beyond that also desires, that is, anger and lust, and the ability to feel, and movements corresponding to motivation.
... Through the medium of reason, a person unites with disembodied and conceited nature, thinking and pondering, and pronouncing the verdict on everything separately, and following virtues, and loving piety - the peak of virtues - that's why man is a small world.
It must be known that the dissection and flow, and the change are peculiar only to the body. Change means qualitative: warming and cooling and the like. The current is the same as that which occurs as a result of emptying, for they emerge: both dry and wet, and spirit, and they need to be filled. Therefore, both hunger and thirst agree with the laws of nature. Dividing is the dissociation of moisture - one from the other and a division into form and matter.
The soul is characterized by piety and thinking. But virtues are communal to the soul and body, and precisely because they are related to the soul, because the soul uses the body.
It must be known that reason by nature rules over an unreasonable part. For the powers of the soul are divided into the rational and the unreasonable. But there are two parts of the unreasonable side of the soul: one is disobedient to reason, that is, the mind does not obey, the other is obedient and obeys reason. A disobedient and disobedient to the mind is, of course, a vital force, which is also called a pulse force, also a force that contains a seed, that is, capable of giving birth, as well as a plant power, which is called nourishing, and this belongs to the force that promotes growth, which forms the body. For they are not governed by reason, but by nature. The obedient and obedient to the mind part is divided into anger and lust. In general, an unreasonable part of the soul is called capable of feelings and exciting desires. It must be known that the movement corresponding to the motivation belongs to the part that is obedient to the mind.
And the power nourishing and giving birth, and the propelling blood belongs to that part which does not obey reason. The vegetable force is the one that promotes growth, and the power that feeds, and the power that gives birth; life is the one that drives the blood.
... It must be known that of those forces that are in the living being, some are spiritual, others are vegetable, others are vital. And sincere, of course, those that come from free will, that is, the movement that corresponds to the motivation, and feelings. The movement, according to the impulse, also belongs to the ability to move from place to place, and the ability to move the whole body, and the ability to produce sound, and the ability to breathe, for it depends on us to accomplish and not to do this. Vegetative and vital are those that do not depend on free will. And plant, of course, is the power that nurtures and promotes growth, and which embodies the seed, the vital is the one that sets the blood in motion. For these forces act even when we desire and when we do not wish.The Monk John of Damascus. Exact statement of the Orthodox faith. St. Petersburg, 1894, p. 78-85.
The God of all, having created a sensible and intelligent creature, finally created man, placing it as a certain image among inanimate and animate, sensual and intelligent creatures, so that inanimate and animated creatures would bring some benefit to him as a kind of tribute, and the rational nature of the guardianship of man proves adherence to man To the Creator.
... When we hear in Moses story that God took the earth from the earth and formed man (Gen. 2, 7), and find the meaning of this saying, we find in this special favor of God to the human race. For when describing the creation, the great prophet observes that God created all other creatures of all kinds by word, and formed man with his own hands. But what we mean by word is not a command, but one will, so here: when the body is formed, it is not the action of the hands, but the greatest attention to this matter. For how now, according to His will, the fruit is born in the womb of the mother and nature follows the laws that He prescribed from the very beginning, so the human body was formed from the earth by His own will and flesh became flesh ...
... The Divine Moses says that the body of Adam was first formed, and then the soul was blown from God: "And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul" (Gen. 2 , 7). This does not mean that any part of the Divine being was "blown up" ... but this word denotes the property of the soul, as a being of the rational.Blessed Theodoret of Cyrus. Creations, Part I, Moscow, p. 28-29, 108-109.
Firstly, in the proper decoration, the earth and the sky and all that is on them. God begins to create the man whose being He had in mind before. And He created every other creation at once by His command and brought into being by His word, like God. Since man is a creature truly gracious and godlike, then, so that it does not seem that he is a semblance of the highest glory - created equally with what is not the same as he, God honors [the process of] his creation of a preliminary council and personal participation. Having formed his body from the earth. He made him a sensible animal; so that he stood out from all the intelligence of his nature, immediately marked him with an imperishable and life-giving spirit: "and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul" (Gen. 2, 7).St. Cyril of Alexandria. Creations, part 4, M., 1886, p. 11-12.
The power of God manifests itself in that He creates from nothing, what He wants, as well as giving the soul and movement is not peculiar to anyone other than God.St. Theophilus of Antioch. (Compositions of ancient Christian apologists., M., 1867, pp. 187).