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16.04.2017 - 08: 12

US - Jordan: chronic partnership

The United States and the Kingdom of Jordan has never been formally bound by the treaty in the field of defense and security. But despite this fact, there has been quite enhanced cooperation in these areas between the two countries over the past two decades.

The geographical position between Israel, Syria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia make Jordan a very important strategic buffer on the outskirts, on the one hand, the Eastern Mediterranean, on the other - to the Persian Gulf. That's borderline position of Jordan to Israel, Saudi Arabia and Syria make this country important to the American political and military plans in the Middle East. According to the official assessment of relations with Jordan, the US State Department, the United States and Jordan share a commitment to promoting regional security and stability. United States contribute to the economic development of Jordan and promote the social, political and economic reforms in the country. The United States recognizes the increasing urgent needs of Jordan's security and stability because of the regional conflicts, refugee flows, Jordan's actions against terrorism "Islamic state"(LIH - organization banned in Russia).

After the First World War on the part of the previously held Ottoman Palestine mandated by the British Empire, it was created the emirate of Transjordan with the Emir of the Hashemite dynasty -Abdullah ibn Husseinat the head. The Emirate of Transjordan existed as of the British mandated territory to 1946 years and after independence was transformed into the kingdom. After the annexation by Israel of the territories in Transjordan as a result of the first Arab-Israeli war, 1947-1949 kingdom's name was changed to "Jordan". Here it should be noted that short period of British rule created tradition of a special relationship between the ruling in the Jordan Hashemite royal family and the United Kingdom. Prior to 1957 years of Jordan's security is guaranteed by the British. They also provide the Jordanian military construction.

Together with the general British "heritage" Jordan has an internal monarchical device resemblance to the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC). However, unlike them, Jordan has no significant economic resources in the form of oil and gas. Ultimately, poverty of Jordan to the Hashemite family chosen strategy and made it dependent on the United States. The United States is providing economic and military aid to Jordan with 1951 and after the political course correction caused by the Suez crisis, with 1957 years.

The total amount of American aid received US Jordan across state lines through the Agency for International Development program (USAID), to 2016 was approximately $ 17,108 billion. This amount does not include allocations for grants for debt relief, food aid between 1999 on 2006 year and the amount of the provision for assistance in mine clearance and in the fight against terrorism, as well as military assistance to Jordan for the Pentagon line.

Initially, the size of US aid every year is different and can be one or a few tens of millions of dollars a year. US aid to Jordan has increased after a multiple of 1996 years. It became a kind of bonus for a separate peace with Israel concluded in 1994, the King of JordanHussein ibn Talal(1952-1999). In the 2003, the US aid to Jordan for the first time once exceeded $ 1 billion after 2013 each year it has exceeded $ 1 billion Jordan received by all except the military, the lines of US aid in 2014 year at $ 1,01 billion, 2015 -.. $ 1,462, 2016 - $ 1,597 billion. on the planned aid to Jordan 2017 year worth at least $ 1,275 billion, of which at least $ 375 million. Jordan intended to replenish the budget.

Apparently, the economic and financial problems of Jordan exacerbated the global crisis 2008 years. administrationBarack Obamatwice he had to take emergency measures to save the Jordanian financial system. For the first time in 2008, the United States and Jordan signed an optional MOU (MOU) to assist Jordan within 5-year period. The second time - in February 2015, the Obama administration and the government of Jordan signed a three-year memorandum of understanding. As part of this agreement the United States have pledged to provide Jordan $ 1 billion a year in the general flow of US foreign aid, subject to approval by Congress, since 2015 2017 years and ending fiscal year.

If not for US aid and IMF controlled by them, Jordan would have to declare bankruptcy. Jordan's total public debt is $ 35,4 90 billion or% of GDP in the year 2016. This year, the budget deficit amounted to Jordan 6,5% of GDP. Due to the instability of the finance IMF country 2012 year Jordan provided a three-year loan of $ 2 billion. In the 2016, the IMF and Jordan reached a new three-year agreement on the fund in the amount of $ 723 million.

The US is providing economic assistance to Jordan in the form of cash transfers - some directly into the budget, the other - on the payment of interest on loans, and for USAID programs in the country. In particular, USAID program a significant part of the US aid directed at optimizing the management of scarce water resources of Jordan. Since 2006, the problem of water resources of Jordan became involved in set up American money corporation "Millennium Challenges» (Millennium Challenge Corporation - MCC). In the 2010, the MCC approved a five-year deal with Jordan in the amount of $ 275,1 million for a program to improve the water supply.

Another form of assistance. In the 2013, the Obama administration has provided Jordan three loan guarantees totaling $ 3,75 billion. American guarantees have allowed Jordan to borrow on international financial markets on favorable terms.

Since 2012, the United States is assisting Syrian refugees in Jordan and spent for these purposes $ 814 million. 20% of aid goes to the content of the refugee camps.

Jordan's military cooperation with the US is a key component of bilateral relations. Pending the conclusion of a peace treaty with Israel in 1994, the supply of American weapons in this country were not full. But when, in the year 1996, Jordan won in the United States the status of "major ally, not a member of NATO." Currently, US military assistance to Jordan in the first place, aimed to ensure that the Jordanian armed forces could acquire and maintain modern American system of conventional arms. Since 2011, Jordan line on the Pentagon received additional military aid in the amount of $ 774,6 million. The main military assistance to Jordan is the program Foreign Military Financing (FMF). The civil war in Syria and Jordan participated in operations against LIH Inherent Resolve demanded to increase military aid to Jordan, which went by the Pentagon line, that is. e. directly from the US budget.

18 2016 February, President Obama signed an act of US defense cooperation with Jordan, to determine the alleged preferential sale of American weapons to this country over the next three years. Prior to that American aid will support the combat capability of the armament Jordanian fighter F-16. Repair and purchase of new engines for the F-16 have cost $ 115,1 million. US assistance allowed for the purchase of Jordanian F-16 missiles with extended range "air-to-air» AIM-120 AMRAAM to $ 131mln.

Of the new products in recent years, Jordan has acquired: 162 and 1808 Javelin ATGM missiles to them for $ 388 million for the arming of helicopters AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, mobile missile system short-range and night vision devices. Jordan on the Red Sea fleet was enlarged with two patrol «35-meter" boats for $ 80 million.

Jordan receives from the United States and second-hand American arms. In this way, for example, it has got two C-130 transport aircraft.

Due to the worsening due to the actions of the United States Congress authorized the LIH provision for strengthening the security of the borders of Jordan. Specifically, according to the Pentagon line was financed activities to strengthen the Kingdom's border with Syria to $ 150 million. For the same purpose the rapid reaction forces of Jordan received two batches of twelve helicopters UH-60M Black Hawk ($ 200 + $ 117,2 million). In the 2015, Jordan requested additional acquisition of another helicopter UH-60M Blackhawk over $ 21 million for surveillance purposes abroad and combating terrorism.

Counterterrorism cooperation Jordan's security services to the CIA, as well as regional policy of its leaders have made Jordan an important partner of the United States. Jordan from autumn 2014, participates in established US-led coalition against LIH and causes air strikes against him in Syria and Iraq. Recall that the coalition allies of the GCC - only in Syria. In the early 2016 years after the loss of the aircraft and the burning of "igilovtsami" in the cell of its pilot Jordan has demonstrated its previous level of military activity, in contrast to the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, to attend to the problem of security of its pilots.

After the start of US military operations against the LIH in Jordan "at the request of its government," they were sent to approximately 2300 US troops. They are placed indefinitely, until the situation improves. In some cases, special forces of Jordan in cooperation with the US strikes at militants LIH, if they are close to the borders of the Kingdom.

Jordan is an attractive target for LIH due to the difficult domestic economic situation, the form of government "traitors" because of the strong relationship with the US and relations with Israel. American experts say that with 2011 years 4 thousand Jordanian citizens fighting in Syria and Iraq. It is believed that the degree of foreign participation in the LIH Jordanians occupied the second place after the Tunisians.

In the 2016 in Jordan categories associated with LIH, carried out several attacks in which, inter alia, killing American soldiers, the Jordanian military and security personnel. In December 2016, the US State Department issued a warning about the threats posed by terrorist groups, the US citizens when visiting Jordan. All employees of the US government in an official visit to Jordan, must obtain prior permission to visit any area located in 10 km from Jordan's border with Syria.

Officially, the Government of Jordan has denied that the country has provided technical and financial support to the Syrian rebels fighting the government of President troopsBashar al-Assad. Instead, the Jordanian government strongly emphasizes its participation in the international coalition against LIH. It is a kind of cover. In practice, however, Jordan militarily directly support the "moderate" Syrian rebel groups, such as certain "Southern Front", operating in the south-west Syria. Directly to the border with Jordan, Syria and the troops are related to LIH. In Jordan, the fear that after the fall of Aleppo fighting involving Russia will move to the south of Syria, that is. e. to the Jordan border. Last year, the UK has tried to coordinate their activities with Moscow in order to prevent collision of armed forces. Since the beginning of the year 2017 Jordanian officials and diplomatic support of Russia and Turkey's efforts to achieve a cease-fire and the beginning of the peace process.

Severe consequences for Jordan's Syrian conflict has become a flood of refugees from Syria. Jordan took at least about 655 thousand registered Syrian refugees, which increased the population of the country to 10%. As of January, about 2017 85 thousand Syrian refugees are on the border with Syria unsettled desert territory Berm. After the London conference on refugees in February 2016, Jordan has given a work permit 200 thousand Syrian refugees, has expanded access to education for more than 165 thousands of Syrian children. In June, 2016 years, taking advantage of another terrorist attack as a pretext, the Jordanian government closed the border with Syria for refugees. At the same time, Jordan has warned Damascus, and, indirectly, to Moscow that "any action that will encourage refugees to our border with Syria and will push to our border will be considered an act of war by Jordan."

It is only natural that Jordan supported the application of the US missile strike on the basis of the Air Forces in Syria, Homs. On the eve of this aggravation, April 5 2017 years, the official visit of the King of JordanAbdullahin Washington. King met with the PresidentDonald Trump. After that, from sources in the Jordan became aware of the preparation of the armed forces of the USA, the UK and Jordan co-operation against "terrorists" on the Jordanian-Syrian border. Prior to that, in March of the year 2017 the Jordanian capital - Amman visited British Prime Minister Theresa May. May also visited the headquarters of the Special Forces of the Kingdom. Apparently, during this visit, we determine the prospects for Britain's participation in the military operations in Syria with the Americans with Jordan direction.

If the war in Syria or LIH is the current security policy challenge Jordan's relations with Israel constitute a constant fundamental problem for the Kingdom.

In the 1994, Jordan and Israel signed a separate peace treaty. In fact, Jordan has recognized the results of the Arab-Israeli wars 1947-1949 and 1967, when Israel captured the West Bank from Jordan and East Jerusalem. Jordan and betrayed the principles of Arab unity against Israel.

This situation has improved relations with Jordan, Western governments and international financial institutions, allowing Amman to rely on external support and assistance. Between Jordan and Israel signed a number of bilateral agreements aimed at the normalization of economic and cultural ties. The two countries exchanged ambassadors. The price paid for a peace treaty with Israel began pumping water from the Sea of ​​Galilee to Jordan. In December 2013, Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority signed a regional water agreement for the use of water from the Dead Sea.

US to legitimize Israel in the Middle East are interested in the pull-Jordan economic relations with them. So, for example, 2011 years Jordan had to buy more natural gas on the open market, because the pipeline supplies from Egypt were interrupted due to repeated terrorist attacks on pipelines in Sinai. In September 2016, the state electricity company NEPCO Jordan signed 15-year contract with the American consortium of Noble Energy Inc. and the Israeli company Delek Drilling-LP on natural gas imports from Israel in the amount of $ 10 billion. Under the contract, will be supplied to Jordan 28 million cubic meters of gas, which will cover approximately 40% Jordan power generation. Deliveries to Jordan with offshore field "Leviathan" in Israel will begin in 2019 year through the pipeline, which is currently under construction.

However, against the cost-effective contracts with Israel in Jordan, it was suggested widespread public discontent. The continuation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, in spite of the peace with Israel 1994 years, remains a serious problem for Jordan. The question of the rights of the Palestinians is a lively response from the majority of the population of Jordan. More than half of Jordan's citizens are descended from Palestinian refugees. Jordanians of Palestinian origin are from about 55% to 70% of the population and, as a rule, they tend to gravitate to the private sector due to initial inability to occupy positions in Jordan in the civil and military service.

Therefore, the Government of Jordan is extremely negatively responded to the promise of Donald Trump when he was a presidential candidate to transfer the US Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. In early January 2017, the Government of Jordan has warned that the move of the US embassy to Jerusalem would be a "red line" for Jordan. In the peace treaty 1994 years were confirmed right Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on the historical Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem. Since 1924, the monarch of Jordan was officially recognized as the guardian of the Temple Mount, known to Muslims as Haram al-Sharif or "Noble Sanctuary".

Against the backdrop of the Islamic revolution in domestic and regional policy challenge for Jordan was the poverty, corruption, slow economic growth and high unemployment - especially among young people and women. Unemployment among young people under the age of 24 29,3% in Jordan. It should be borne in mind that in the age group of one to 24 years, the number 55% of Jordan's population. It is a powder keg ready. Unemployment among women is 48,8%, ie. e. almost half. Every year, thousands of Jordanians go abroad in search of better jobs and opportunities. Jordan suffers from a "brain drain". Unemployment gives rise to extremism.

Jordan officially listed currently in the category of "constitutional monarchy." However, Jordan's constitution and in his last edition of 2016 years gives the king the most extensive executive powers. For example, the King appoints the Prime Minister and can reject or accept his resignation. It also has the exclusive right to appoint the Crown Prince, senior military leaders, judges of the Constitutional Court and all senators to the upper house of the local parliament. The king appoints the cabinet. The constitution allows the king to dissolve both houses of parliament and postpone the election to the lower house for two years. King can bypass the legislators through the constitutional mechanism that allows to legislate at a time when Parliament is not in session or was dissolved. The King may also issue royal decrees, which are not subject to parliamentary control. The King commands the armed forces, declares war and ratifies treaties. Article 195 the Jordanian Penal Code prohibits insulting the dignity of the king. Ultimately, the constitutional amendments strengthened the centralization of Jordanian control of the ruling royal family and made a ghostly constitutional component of the monarchy.

With such a form of government, political parties in Jordan are very weak and have for the most part confessional, not a civil orientation. In Jordan, there are Islamist parties: "The Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood" and the political wing of the local branch of the "Muslim Brotherhood", known as the "Islamic Action Front". Due to the events in Egypt in 2011-2013 2015 spring, the Jordanian Jordanian authorities banned "Muslim Brotherhood." Derivation of "Muslim Brotherhood" of the political process capable radicalise a certain part of the local population and further adversely affect the security of the country.

В отчете Госдепа США по правам человека в Иордании за 2016 год перечисляются следующие проблемы в этой области: неспособность граждан выбирать свой высший руководящий орган, ограничение свободы выражения мнений, включая преследование журналистов, применение органами безопасности к задержанным жестокого обращения и даже пыток, ограничение свободы ассоциаций и собраний, плохие условия содержания в тюрьмах, нарушение права на неприкосновенность частной жизни, гендерное неравенство, насилие в отношении женщин и детей, правовая и общественная дискриминация женщин, религиозных меньшинств, ЛГБТ, торговля людьми и т. д., т. е. обычный набор для арабских консервативных монархий, впрочем, не служащий поводом для введения санкций. Реакция США на подобные нарушения всегда была приглушенной, поскольку Иордания является ключевым союзником Соединенных Штатов на подступах к Израилю. g., vol. e. a common set of conservative Arab monarchies, however, not an employee the reason for the imposition of sanctions. US reaction to such violations has always been muted because Jordan is a key ally of the United States on the outskirts of Israel.

Jordan has a small industrial base. Kingdom's economy is heavily dependent on aid from abroad, tourism, remittances from emigrants and the services sector. In the 2016, the growth of the Jordanian economy was about 2%. The state of Jordan is the largest employer, which is directly related to the well-being, according to various estimates, between one and two thirds of the workers.

In the 2000, the United States and Jordan signed a free trade agreement (FTA). This was the first agreement of its kind with the Arab world. In addition, a special decision of the Congress of the United States products, created in industrial areas of Israel, Jordan, Egypt or the West Bank and Gaza Strip are imported into the United States duty-free. In the 2016 21%, the export of Jordan was in the United States. If the export of Jordan United States is in first place, then on imports - the third after Saudi Arabia and China.

The United States and Jordan have "open skies" agreement on civil aviation, Bilateral Investment Treaty, an agreement on scientific and technical cooperation and a memorandum of understanding in the field of nuclear energy. Officially, these agreements stimulate economic growth and contribute to the "diversification" of the economy of Jordan, although the latter is by no means "oil" or "monokulurnoy". Jordan clearly problems become chronic, and the United States enjoy this.

A source: EADaily

Tags: US, Jordan, Politics, International Relations, Middle East, Analytics, Economy, Armament, Israel