In Poland, a new law on the repatriation of overseas compatriots. This is another attempt to "gather in one place," even if not all Poles of the world, but those who are still living in the former Soviet Union. There is reason to believe that this appeal will be heard and will be successful. But if Moscow should follow the example of Warsaw?
Under the new law, an immigrant is a person arriving historic home with the intention of permanent residence. Returnees will provide nutrition and hygiene, as well as pocket money - 200 zlotys (ie, about 50 euros) per month until they find a job. Fundamentally help with housing - new arrivals receive from the state financial aid for rent, purchase or repair thereof. And if the first immigrants, received a gift of a house or apartment, you had to pay the tax, now they are released from this obligation.
It is expected that in Poland for ten years, will move 10-15 thousand. The number is small, but we must understand that this is just "icing on the cake." Sam "cake" - the package of measures, which for many years has made Warsaw, while encouraging the move to the country by supporting ethnic Poles and Polish community in the territory of neighboring countries. The most complete he put it in a paper entitled, "Polish Card". Actually, thanks largely to his Polish officials are now very easy to distinguish the immigrant returning to "their" migrants from the simple - Jobseekers Polish citizenship.
It is unlikely that in the countries of the former Soviet Union there are those carriers Polish blood, who at least in theory, does not know how to get a "map Pole," and why is it needed. For the rest should be clear: in Poland the holder of this card has many rights, generally apply only to citizens. For example, it is possible to do business or get a job without a special permit. You can enjoy free medical care and - in part - education. There are a variety of "knacks": With this card in hand, you can visit state museums without paying for a ticket, and buy train tickets with 37% discount.
Even those in whom the Polish blood relatively few get the coveted card is not so difficult. You must be a citizen of any of the republics of the former USSR, the Polish nobility at least at a basic level and consider it their native language, and also to prove that at least one of the direct ancestors including grandparents or great-grandparents were Poles or have Polish citizenship. In extreme cases, you can provide a certificate from a Polish official organization supporting active participation in the activities, which was to the benefit of the Polish language and culture over the last three years. If these conditions are met, "Polish Card" can be obtained from the nearest to the place of residence of the consul, after submitting a written application and some documents.
The card is valid for ten years from the date of issuance. It shall be terminated if the holder finally settled on the territory of Poland and get Polish citizenship. The card can be obtained for the child, if there is at least one of the parents.
At one of the events involving the correspondent of the newspaper LOOK Polish Ambassador to Latvia Jerzy Marek Nowakowski said: "The policy of our state concerning diaspora in other countries, is expressed in supporting the development and preservation of culture, language, ties with their historical homeland."
"Honestly, it would be a sin to complain about the Polish state. Support for overseas compatriots proclaimed in Poland, one of the priorities - and it's not just words, but also a real financial aid. We provide regular assistance on various issues - and therefore we are able to frequently carry out a variety of cultural events, to support our education, to produce their magazines and TV programs ", - he confirmed the head of Daugavpilssky Polish society" Promen "Rishard Stankevich.
In short, many Russian, scattered throughout the former Soviet lands, the Poles might envy. And they are really jealous. In the Russian-speaking community of Latvia Latgale, where the Russian population of only slightly inferior to the Latvians (if we exclude the number of Latvians Latgale, the superior) and is home to a large Polish community in the summer of 2009-th there was a commotion. Foundation "Russian" announced the beginning of the distribution of "Russian card" and people were willing to stand behind it in every place, the topic was actively discussed in the blogs and in the streets. At first, few people noticed that the card which intends to distribute the fund is purely symbolic. Too eloquent and was known example of Poland, which turned a "map of the Pole" in the diaspora effective support tool.
In an interview with the newspaper VIEW co-chairman of the "Russian Union of Latvia" Miroslav Mitrofanov said that the question of the "Russian card" resuscitated in the country for quite a long time - and just as regularly calms down. "For the Russian government is extremely difficult to determine the boundaries of the concept of" compatriot "who believe this is the card. If we make the widest possible definition, of rush maps, including those people who help Russia not interested. For example, our ardent "Natsik" if you want too, because would fall into the category of compatriots. Or some indifferent cynics who spit on Russia, and who want only to broaden their opportunities. If, on the contrary, make a very harsh conditions for granting national status, someone probably unwittingly discriminate, repelled by the Russian Federation of its true friends. So the question goes in a circle, "- he said. In this case, Mitrofanov sure that one day Russia will undertake the necessary solution to this problem.
For its part, the Baltic countries to the introduction of "Russian card"unlikely to give sympathetic consideration. "Card of the Pole" is also glad not everywhere, but in the framework of its policy of supporting Polish diasporas Warsaw is not afraid to go to conflict.
So, six years ago the Belarusian Constitutional Court considered a number of regulations of the Polish law "On Pole's Card", "contrary to international law." A year later, the Belarusian parliamentbannedhis deputies to use the "Polish Card".
Negatively to this policy applies to Lithuania, in which Poland old controversy over the official Vilnius cultural pressure on the local Polish community. The head of the Parliamentary Committee on Foreign Affairs Audronius Ažubalis stated explicitly that the very existence of "Polish card" threaten friendly relations between Poland and Lithuania. HimsecondedChairman of the Committee on the Rights and the rule of law Stasis Shedbaras: "The introduction of documents that provide an advantage on a national basis for Lithuanian citizens of the same nationality, is not entirely loyal approach towards the neighboring country." It is also considered a proposal to ban holders "Polish Card" to be elected to Parliament, but decided it was not in 2012-th Diet.
But at the end of last year, the Polish Senate adopted a new "Law on the Pole's Card". Now the decision on financial aid to pay for cardholders applying for a residence permit will take at the county mayor, and the head of the territorial higher rank - governor (though the elder will continue to be responsible for the payment of social assistance). Indeed, the process is easier to control at the level of provinces 16 and 330 not county prefects. In this case, the terms of financial aid is now limited to nine months, and the application is not accepted from individuals who have used the social assistance in the status of a family member of the applicant. Nationalism is nationalism, but something you need and save.
But far more important amendments to the regulations adopted by the Diet in September and yaevare the same year, "Polish Card" holders simplify the procedure for obtaining Polish citizenship to a minimum. In this case, MPs voted "for" unanimously. "We give the opportunity to quickly obtain Polish citizenship. And in the first, the most difficult months of adaptation the Polish state will support them, so that they feel at home here, "-saidthen head of the parliamentary Commission for Relations with Poles Abroad, an MP from the ruling party "Law and Justice" Michal Dvorchik.
The distinction between citizen and "Pole map" was very thin, and a shuttle service - fast: permission to stay in the country will now give a free year of residence in Poland automatically leads to full citizenship, guaranteed by the evacuation and the provision of effective assistance to third countries in case of emergency. The government even partially paid to such persons of Polish language courses and training.
Poland - is not the only example of a policy of collecting divided nation within a nation-state. But in her case, it is the most complete, consistent, solid and well thought-out, in view of which is comparable to the much more well-known Israeli program and large-scale repatriation, but rather a cautious German. In this sense it is almost ideal for the study in case if Russia ever decides to give up half-measures and to follow a similar path.