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12.04.2017 - 13: 32

The great geographical discoveries of military intelligence of the Russian Empire

178 years ago, April 12 1839, was born the great Russian scientist Nikolai Mikhailovich Przewalski - geographer, explorer of Central Asia.

People such as Przewalski, the road especially the fact that the meaning of their life, deeds, purpose and moral physiognomy are understandable, even a child ... Reading his biography, no one will ask: why? why? What's the point? But just say, he's right.

Anton Chekhov

He had no equal in the determination, enterprise, energy and resourcefulness. No difficulty was not frightened. Service to the Fatherland, courage, selfless love of science, nature, observation, patience, perseverance, commitment, self-discipline, honesty - these are the traits of his character. According to the general results of their work NMPrzhevalsky took one of the pride of place among the famous travelers of all time.

His dream, destiny and become the last refuge of Central Asia, which he gave about his 11 years 49-year life.


Przewalski's horse

Born in the village Kimborovo province of Smolensk in April 12 1839, the son of a landowner, a retired lieutenant Mikhail Kuzmich Elena Przewalski and Alekseevny Karetnikova. As a child, long I roamed the forests of Smolensk, read books, travel, geography, animals and plants. One of my favorite book was "great warrior."

And he became a great warrior science.

After graduating from high school 16-year-old Nikolai Przewalski, inspired by the heroism of the defenders of Sevastopol, decides to become a military and entered the service in Belev regiment, and in spare time exploring the neighborhood, hunting, collecting herbarium. Five years later he entered the Academy of the General Staff, which is the end gave the opportunity to participate in the trip: course work "Military Statistical Review of the Amur Region" brings him membership in the Russian Geographical Society. After the academy teaches at the Warsaw cadet school, engaged in science and wrote a textbook on the general geography of the cadets, who at one time enjoyed great success in the military and civilian educational institutions and released in several editions, including - in foreign countries. Then his thoughts began to occupy Central Asia: "I am sure that sooner or later, but carrying out a cherished dream" - says Przewalski.

Finally, the first trip took place in May 1867 years - managed to get a trip to the Ussuri region, shortly before joined to Russia. Instruction Przhevalsky instructed to identify the location of the troops, to collect information on the number and status of Russian, Manchu and Korean populations, leading to explore ways of borders, correct and supplement the roadmap, "to make all sorts of research scientists." Going on an expedition, he wrote to a friend: "... I'm going to the Amur River, and from there on the river. Ussuri, Lake Khanka and on the shore of the Pacific Ocean, to the borders of Korea. Yes! I fell on the share of enviable and difficult duty - to explore the countryside, much of which is still untouched by educated Europeans. Especially since it will be the first of my statement about yourself scientist the world. "

"On the mixed ethnic population in the southern part of the Amur region," the result of two years of research and steel works "Journey to the Ussuri region" described about 300 species of plants, birds, many of which were previously unknown. Russian Geographical Society appreciated imported materials: Przewalski received a silver medal, but the main reward for him was the opportunity of the next trip - an expedition to Central Asia.

Since 1870 1885 year of Nikolai Przewalski organized and carried out four expeditions to Central Asia. On horseback and on foot, on a difficult route, sleeping in the snow, when confronted with the resistance of the Chinese and Tibetan authorities, the hostility of the local population, diseases and misfortunes, merciless to himself, but friendly to his companions. The first - "Mongolian" expedition, the most difficult and dangerous: in the three years covered, for the most part on foot, 12 thousand kilometers. Przewalski left a record of this expedition: "Away from home we lived like brothers. We shared together work and danger, sorrow and joy. Save to the grave grateful memories of their satellites, immense courage and dedication have caused the success of the entire enterprise. " The result has been collected 4000 specimens of plants, discovered new species named after him: lizard Przewalski rasschepohvost Przewalski Przewalski rhododendron; on the map of Central Asia appeared 23 new range, 7 17 large and small lakes, refined heights of many passes, the exact locations of the villages identified. Travelers endeared himself to many locals responsiveness and using drugs, and a cure for malaria patients Dungan called Przewalski great white hubilganom - great doctors and saints. This journey has brought Nikolai Mikhailovich worldwide fame and a gold medal of the Russian Geographical Society. As for his journey Przheval'skiy report was written the book "Mongolia and the country of Tangut", which was translated into many languages ​​of the world, its author has received from foreign geographical societies medals and certificates.


medal Przewalski

A second expedition was organized for the study of Tibet and Lhasa, started in the year 1876. She thought it was big, but because of the complications of the political situation - conflict with the Chinese authorities and the Przewalski's disease - the route had to be changed and shortened. Overcoming the Tien Shan and the Tarim Basin, the travelers reached the vast reed swamp-lake Lop Nor. By researcher description, lake had 100 kilometers in length and approximately 22 km wide. On the shores of Lop Nor, in the "Land of Lop", Przewalski was the second after Marco Polo. It has been described in detail solely with downstream Tarim group lakes and ridge Altyn-tag. Opening Przheval'skiy Altyn has been recognized throughout the scientific world's largest geographical discovery: it is precisely set the northern boundary of the Tibetan plateau, and Tibet was at 300 kilometers further north than previously thought. and collected materials on the ethnography lobnortsev (karakurchintsev), and the record appears in the journal Nikolai Mikhailovich: "It will take a year to settle misunderstandings with China will recover my health, and I again take the wandering staff again and head to the Asian deserts."

And in the year 1879, 13 with satellites, Przewalski sent to a third, "Tibet" an expedition through the desert and Hami Nan Shan mountain range in the highlands of Tibet. Its participants river Huang He has been investigated, the northern part of Tibet, opened two ridges, called Przheval'skiy in honor of Humboldt and Ritter, bear and wild pischuhoed Junggar horse received in the scientific literature as "Przewalski's horses." This expedition scientists described in the book "From Zaisan through Hami in Tibet and in the upper reaches of the Yellow River." But that Nikolai Przewalski, even if not quite healthy, has not stopped and has organized the fourth expedition, called "second Tibet travel," and it lasted for a 1883 1885 year. This expedition was crowded and furnished richer than all the previous ones. The expedition explored the origins of Huang He and the watershed between the Huang-ho and Yang-tse. These areas of geographic while completely not known, not only in Europe but also in China, and on maps represent only approximately. Achieving and study the origins of Juan N. Ho М. Przewalski rightly considered the decision "an important geographical problem": were discovered unknown to Europeans and do not have even the local ranges names. He gave them names: Russian Ridge, Ridge Moscow, Columbus ridge and the summit ridge of Moscow gave the name "Kremlin". To the south of Columbus ridges and Russian Przewalski he saw "extensive snow ridge" and called it "puzzling". Subsequently, the ridge by the Board of the Russian Geographical Society was named after N. М. Przewalski. The result of this journey is the next book "From Kyakhta to the sources of the Yellow River, the study of the northern suburbs of Tibet and the path through the Lob-nor Basin Tarim".

Merit N. M. Przhevalskogo were recognized during the life of him, both in Russia and abroad. Twenty-four scientific Russian and Western European institutions elected him its honorary member. NMPrzhevalsky was an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow University awarded him a degree of Honorary Doctor of Zoology. Smolensk city elected him an honorary citizen.

Foreign Geographical Society awarded NM Przhevalsky their awards: Swedish - the highest award - the medal Vega, Berlin - Humboldt medal, Paris and London - the gold medal, the French Ministry of Education - "Palm Academy." London Geographical Society awarded him in 1879 of its highest award, noted that his trip surpass everything that has taken place since the time of Marco Polo (XIII century.).

One Przewalski ... is worth a dozen schools and hundreds of good books ... ideological, noble ambition, having at the base of the honor of the motherland and science ... do it in people's eyes devotee who represents the highest moral strength.

Anton Chekhov

But neither honors nor rewards, nor fame nor material security could not keep Nikolaya Przhevalskogo in place in March of 1888 he finished fourth trip description, and the following month already had permission and money on a new expedition to Lhasu.18 August 1888, Nikolai Mikhailovich arrived in Karakol, which was manned by members of the expedition and prepared a caravan to travel, which, unfortunately, was not destined to place: November 1 1888, the Przewalski died of typhus at the hands of his comrades. Before his death, he asked: "On one please do not forget to bury me necessarily on the shore of Issyk-Kul, in the form of hiking expedition ..." He was not even 50 years. For graves have chosen smooth beautiful place on the shore of Issyk-Kul, on a cliff, overlooking the lake. On the grave of the great blocks of local marble was later erected a monument with the inscription: "Nikolai Mikhailovich Przewalski, born March 31 1839 city, died 20 1888 October, the The first explorer of nature in Central Asia "(the date specified in Article. Style).


Lake Issyk-Kul

Life N. М. Przewalski striking: at the limit of physical capacity, under the most difficult conditions far from the present travel opportunities, including - the so-called extreme, equipped with all sorts of communications, equipment and transportation, Przewalski not just traveled, he served the Fatherland by a sense of duty and love. It seems that these feelings gave him and his companions such strength. Anton Pavlovich Chehov called Przewalski ascetic: "In our sick time when European societies was overcome laziness, boredom life and disbelief, when everywhere in a strange mutual combination reign dislike of life and fear of death, when even the best people sitting on their hands, justifying their laziness and its debauchery lack a specific goal in life, devotees need the sun. Making the most poetic and cheerful member of society, they excite, console and ennoble. Their personalities - these are living documents indicating to the public that except the people leading the dispute about optimism and pessimism ... in addition to the skeptics, mystics, liberals and conservatives have yet another order people, people of faith and deed clearly realize the goal. " Chekhov said in 1888 year seemed to be showing contemporary life, including in Russia, where you will not hear the words Fatherland, Motherland, except that the names of the restaurants, but the scornful "Raska" and "scoop" - at every turn.

Recall written over 200 years ago poems F. I. Tyutcheva:

Disgraced - world tribe,
When will you people?
When done away with time
And your hatred, and misery,
And break out the cry to unite,
And collapse that divides us?

In the seventies of the last century Russian poet Nikolai Rubtsov wrote:

Russia, Russia! Beware Save!
See, back in the woods and valleys your
From all sides they raided -
Other times Tatars and Mongols ...

A source: A REGNUM

Author: Larisa Shilova

Tags: Russian, History