Two Romes fell - there was no fourth. The formula was not pride, but a warning: if Moscow turns out to be unworthy, the world will be left without central state Christian authority. In addition to indicating the main symbol, an indication of the great calling, the Tikhvin icon, like Kurskaya, served as a symbol of the Virgin's Walking through Russian torment. Especially it affected in 200 years after the appearance of the icon, at the beginning of the 17th century, in troubled times, when Russia was also smashed by thieves, Polish, Lithuanian gangs, and Swedes in the north. The spiritual center of protection of the eastern part of the Novgorod land was the Tikhvin Mother of God. Ancient lists of her consoles in the twentieth century, the Russian exiles. One is in the temple of the Sergievsky farmstead in Paris, the other, perhaps the most authentic icon, is taken to America and strengthens the Russian soul there.
As the first centuries, and the last fifty and a few years of the history of the miraculous image of the Mother of God, already the seventh century known as Tikhvinsky, are hidden under the cover of secrecy. According to legend, this image was written during life by the Most Holy Apostle and Evangelist Luke, who gave it to his disciple Theophilus in the city of Antioch. Then the icon was in Jerusalem, and in the century was taken by the Byzantine empress Evdokia to Constantinople. In the days of the temporary celebration of iconoclastic heresy, the monks concealed the image from the monastery of Pantokrator, after which it remained one of the main relics of Constantinople for one century until one day miraculously disappeared from the enclosing church to be seen in Russia, in Novgorod, near The city of Tikhvin.
First the marvelous image floating in the luminous clouds was noticed by fishermen on the Ladoga Lake, then, after earnest prayers, he sank to the ground in several neighboring villages and finally stopped finally on the Tikhvinka River, the tributary of the Syas River, which flows into Ladoga, where the temple was soon built In the name of the Assumption, on the right-hand column of which, at the western doors, and placed a miraculous image.
It was exactly half a century before the capture of Constantinople by the Turks (in 1453) and the final fall of the Byzantine Empire. The miraculous transfer of the miraculous from Second Rome to the Third marked the fast transition of the center of Christian power from Constantinople to Moscow.
In the reign of Ivan the Terrible around the Assumption Church in Tikhvin was built a man's monastery, attracted many thousands of pilgrims from all parts of the Russian land. Surrounded by the walls of this monastery, Tikhvinskaya became famous for many miraculous healings. And when the monastery was besieged by the Swedes, the voice of the Most Pure commanded one pious woman to carry Her image along the walls of the monastery, and the Swedes, who were frightened by unknown force, fled. Therefore, the Tikhvin monastery always experienced the special attention and patronage of pious Russian tsars; As a sign of special honor, her archimandrites used the privileges of divine services, which are ordinarily reserved only for bishops.
Soon after the miracle-working phenomenon, another miracle happened. When the first wooden church was built in the Prechistenskoye Pogost (in the future city of Tikhvin), the local sexton Yurysh (George) went to inform the neighboring peasants about the start of divine services. On the way back to him in the radiance of heavenly light appeared the Most Pure, sitting on a pine deck with a baton in his hands, and next to Her - Nikola the Wonderworker in a holy garment. Icons of a special type, depicting this miraculous phenomenon, also became famous for wonders in several places: in the village of Pavlovskoye in the Zvenigorodsky county, in Epifanovka in Gorbatovsky district of the Nizhny Novgorod province, in Alekseevka-Losevka near Voronezh.
In the same Tikhvin monastery twenty-four times a year, the procession with the miracle-working icon was performed, the precious robe adorned it, and the golden lamp hung in front of it. The monastery was rich and glorious, until a new and, it seemed to everyone, irreversible ruin occurred. With the closure of the monastery, the miraculous image was taken to the local museum, where, as far as we know, no serious scientific research was ever conducted.
In the years of the Great Patriotic City, the Nazis took a short walk, and with their departure the miraculous miracle vanished. They say Tikhvinskaya was seen at 1944 in one of the antiques shops occupied by the Germans in Riga. Now it is reliably known only that it is located overseas, in private possession in the city of Chicago. On the owners themselves and on their future intentions, there are various rumors; In recent times - in particular, as if they are ready to give the icon back to Tikhvin under the condition of either a revival of the monastery alone, or a complete merger of the Russian Orthodox and Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia. Whether anyone in Russia is authorized for the relevant negotiations and whether they are being conducted at all, we do not know for sure.
Let's say that we know. According to the old descriptions, the icon of "Greek writing", "significant size; The face is dark, almost black. " Over the centuries I have renewed myself quite a lot; In all likelihood, the layer of the letter visible on it now belongs to the Ignatius Grek's isogram, which worked for the Moscow prince Yuri Dmitrievich. It has long been observed that the hand of the Most Pure "is distinguished by an extraordinary warmth, tangible to the lips when applied." Again, according to rumors, conducted in America, X-ray studies have shown the presence in this place of the icon board of a certain anomalous zone. Belongs to the Tikhvinskaya type Odigitriya, the Most Pure is depicted to the waist, with her face turned to the right of the praying (although according to the pious tradition, the right and left sides on the icons are defined from the point of view of those who are depicted on them); The addition of fingers on the hand of the Child is two-fingered.
Already in the second half of the sixteenth century, Old Russian scribes began to identify Tikhvinskaya with the main shrine of the Second Rome - the Vlakherna image of the Virgin, with the transition of which Rus as the only Orthodox power inherited the intact Christianity traditions; Others believed that the original Vlaherna was on Athos, and in 1653 was brought to Moscow and placed in the Assumption Cathedral.
Anyway, it was during the time of strengthening of the Catholic expansion into the surrounding lands that the "Tale of the Tikhvin Hodegetria" appeared, where the Roman Pope Formos was specially mentioned, who was considered the "first culprit of the Latin heresies", and this means that this particular icon was seen by the Russian people as a predominant Symbol of its continuity from the Second Rome and its primacy before Rome first. Tikhvinskaya's belonging to the number of icons written directly by Evangelist Luke meant the truth and age-old limitation of the depiction of her fingers on the hand of the Infant-a double-aperture. After the schism of the XVII century, this evidence acquired a special role, for the icon served as proof of the antiquity of the two-fingers, even for illiterate Christians. Therefore, the "Tale of Tikhvin ..." stood a number of underground reprints during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and hitherto belongs to the circle of favorite reading of the zealots of the old faith.
For the same reason, there was a very wide circulation (appearing in the Vyhovsky desert) and they have copper cast images of the "Worship of the icon of the Virgin of Tikhvin", found both separately and as part of a folding one. Above in the center on these images is placed the image of Our Lady of Tikhvin, to the right (from the praying) is the Monk Kirill Belozersky, and to the left - the Monk Alexander Svirsky. Both of them are the founders of the famous monasteries of the North Thebaid and both of them were the apparitions of the Mother of God. At the bottom, in pairs, with scrolls and books in hand, stand Three Saints - the creators of the Eastern Christian liturgy Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian and John Chrysostom - along with the greatest of the saints of God, Nikolas the Miracle-Worker (which, among other things, recalls the vision of George-Yurysh at the appearance of Tikhvin Only the Most Pure, but St. Nicholas). In the middle of the four figures of the saints, such copper icons invariably depict the northern Russian forest with the domes of the temples above it and the road that winds along the hillocks - the place of prayer exploits of a whole host of deserters; It also recalls the special intercession of Tikhvinskaya for these "full-fledged" regions. According to a strong popular conviction, she also "has the deliberate grace of preserving the health of infants.
Tikhvin icon, put up for slaughtering believers at the exhibition "Orthodox Russia" in Moscow. 2011
One of the oldest and most venerated lists from the miraculous prototype is placed in the local iconostasis of the Annunciation Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin; Honorable lists were also found in the Panteleimon Chapel at the Vladimir Gate of China Town, in the Smolensk Cathedral of the Novodevichy Nunnery and in the Church of St. Nicholas on Chips. In all, there were nine temples in the name of the Tikhvin icon (including one Old Believer). Of these, churches are now functioning in the former village of Alekseevskoye (never closed, according to legend, it was from here that the frightened Stalin took 1941 fall in the fall of the once-king Alexei Mikhailovich list with a miracle-working one to be flown in an airplane around besieged Moscow), in Sushchev (services resumed in 1992 year), at the Medvednevskaya almshouse (now the Central Clinical Hospital of the Moscow Patriarchate) the refectory church of Simonov and the gatehouse - Donskoi monasteries. Demolished the Moscow Tikhvin churches on Berezhki in Dorogomilovo, in Luzhniki, in the Skorybashchensky monastery; Busy under the tavern for the "new Russian" "red scroll" Old Believer Church on Havas street. On the Neva banks there were six churches in the name of the Tikhvin icon (one parish in Ligovka, where from July 1993 the worship service was resumed, one house-servant and four in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra and monastery farmsteads).
In addition to the very prototype, there were several miraculous lists from him in the Tikhvin Bogoroditsky Monastery; The most revered was the Militant icon, which accompanied local warriors during the Patriotic and Crimean wars.
Other lists with Tikhvinskaya also became famous at different times: in the St. Isaac's Cathedral of the northern capital (especially famous for the healing of children), in the Resurrection Church of Novgorod the Great (revealed in 1643), in Dankov Ryazan province, in Zemlyansk Voronezh province, Danilov Troitsky monastery Pereslavl- Zalessky.
Several other monasteries were also called Tikhvin. This is one of the monasteries of the famous Valaam monastery (located at 25 versts from the very archipelago on the island, by which once miraculous through the air), and women's monasteries: under Yekaterinoslav, in Tsivilsk near Kazan, in the village of Borisovka Graivoronsky district of Kursk province, near Kerensky under Penza (where, in 1687, the local Tikhvin icon appeared).
In another monastery near Tikhvin in the altar of the Vvedensky Cathedral temple was the Tikhvin icon, brought here by the abbess fourth wife of Ivan the Terrible by the queen Darya. The number of other parish and monastic Tikhvin churches and local icons in cities and towns of the Russian land and among the Russian diaspora is hardly quantifiable. Like a fragment of a mirror reflecting the disk of the Sun in its fullness and integrity, like a large mirror, these lists bring to the world all the grace of the original prototype. We believe and hope that he will return to our land.
The celebration of the Tikhvin Icon is on 26 June according to the Christian calendar. In the troparion of this day is sung:
Troparion, Tone 4
Today, as the sun is illuminated, we are shown in the air a venerable icon of Thine, the Lady, the rays of mercy, the world enlightening, the great Russia, as a gift, the Divine reverent reverent, glorifies thee, Bogomati, all the Lady, and from You born Christ our God exalts . To Him, praying, for Lady Queen of the Theotokos, may all the hailstones and Christian countries remain unscathed from all the slanders of the enemy and will save by faith the worshipers of His Divine and Your most pure image, Devo the Virgin.