Today: November 18 2018
russian English greek latvian French German Chinese (Simplified) Arabic hebrew

All that you will be interested in knowing about Cyprus on our website Cyplive.com
the most informative resource about Cyprus in runet
The Significance of the Works of the Apostle Paul in the Corpus of the Apostolic Epistles

The Significance of the Works of the Apostle Paul in the Corpus of the Apostolic Epistles

19.03.2018
Tags: Religion, Christianity

How do we know the words of the Savior? And who was the guardian of the Word of God? Of course, those were the disciples of Jesus Christ - the apostles. First they passed the teaching from mouth to mouth, and later letters began to appear-apostolic messages. Today we will talk about the creations of the apostle Paul, who knew the pagans well and understood their culture, which later helped him on the path of the apostolic mission. The texts of the apostle Paul are a whole systematization of the Christian teaching.

THE PROCESS OF THE FORMATION OF THE CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURE

The word canon (Greek κανών, literally 'straight pole, any measure determining the direct direction') means 'rule'. When it is said about the canon of the New Testament, it means the authenticity of the books included in its composition, and thus it is asserted that the text of these books was written by the hands of the apostles themselves. And this, in turn, is the main reason for the indisputable authority of these Scriptures [1]. The main factor in determining the New Testament canon is Inspiration, the decisive test is the apostolism of a particular book [2], as well as their quoting or having references to them from authoritative theologians of the early Christian centuries, incl. "Husbands of the apostles", who approved in their writings the dogmatic fidelity of the content of such books [3].

Jesus Christ himself spoke about the importance and authority of the New Testament. At the time of His preaching, the canon of the Old Testament was already formed, to which He repeatedly referred as authoritative Scripture. But at the same time, the Lord in the days of His public ministry, along with the Old Testament, not only testified once again about the importance and authority of His own words and utterances. And He said that His words in no way inferior to the Law of Moses. Moreover, His Commandments of importance do not just stand on par with the Old Testament Commandments, but they correct, fulfill and even abolish certain ideas of the law and prophets, filling them with a new, blessed sense. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that this mainly concerned only the external aspect of the law of Moses, the "letter" that "Spirit" was now giving in the sermon of the Savior. To be sure of what was said above, one can consider, for example, the Sermon on the Mount where it says: "You have heard that it was said by the ancients ... but I tell you" (Matthew 5: 21-48). One can also trace this by examples such as the attitude of Jesus Christ to divorce (Mark 10: 2-12) and to the so-called unclean food (Mark 7: 14-19). However, what was said in the Sermon on the Mount in its inner deep content did not contradict what was said about the ancient law: "Do not think that I came to break the law or the prophets: I did not come to destroy, but fulfilled. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass away, not a single iota or one line will pass from the law until all is fulfilled. So whoever breaks one of these least commandments and teaches people so, the one who is least known in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever creates and teaches, he will be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven "(Mt.5: 17-19).

It was after the death of the holy apostles that the careful collection of the apostolic writings began, their copying, distribution in all Christian churches located in different places of the Roman Empire

In the ancient Church, the words of the Savior had indisputable authority even in relation to the Old Testament prophets, they were carefully preserved and recorded, as evidenced by the apostle and evangelist Luke in the prologue of the Gospel narrative with an address to a certain Theophilus: "As many people began to write narratives about the well-known We have seen the events between us, as witnesses and servants of the Word transmitted to us from the very beginning, I also reasoned, after careful study of everything first, in order to describe to you " (LX 1: 1-2).

Apostles - the closest disciples of the Lord - as well as their Teacher, preached verbally, conveying the narrative of the life, death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ and His teaching through the living word. Therefore, it is not surprising that the literary heritage of most of the apostles is unknown.

After the death of the apostles, their evangelism did not cease to sound. And at the same time a new question arose - the preservation without distortion of the essence of Christ's Gospel after the death of witnesses of the mission of the Savior, which hitherto was kept and passed on to the new members of the Church of Christ through the living testimony of the apostles. To this St. John Chrysostom said: "We really should not have need of the help of Scripture, but we should lead a life so pure that instead of books the grace of the Spirit would serve our souls, and that, like those written in ink, so too the hearts were covered with the Spirit. But as with time some have evaded the true doctrine, others from the purity of life and morality, then again the need for admonition is again written "[4].

Andrei Rublev, Holy Apostle Paul, icon about 1410

Indeed, according to historical sources, it can be argued that it was after the death of the holy apostles that the careful collection of the apostolic writings began, their copying, distribution to all Christian churches in different places of the Roman Empire [5].

Twenty-seven books, now the canon of the New Testament, constitute a clearly defined list of scriptures that, for all their differences, convey the apostolic preaching of Christ. Meanwhile, the process of selection and recognition of the books of the New Testament as Holy Scripture (canonization) took a relatively long time - about three centuries [6].

To determine the source text of the New Testament, the textualist can use three groups of sources: Greek manuscripts, ancient translations into other languages, and New Testament quotes from early Christian writers.

So, the first place in the list of New Testament manuscripts, preserved to our time, occupies the code of the Greek Bible of the 4th century, discovered in the middle of the 19th century. German theologian and Bible researcher Constantine Tischendorf in the monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai. Since then, this manuscript is known as the Sinaitic Code. This monument contained all the Old and New Testaments, besides it still contained the message of Barnabas and part of the "Shepherd" of the apostle Erma, formerly known only by the name [7]. In 1862, the manuscript was published in the original text under the auspices of the Russian Empire, with all the opportunities available at that time. The final facsimile edition of the photographs of the manuscript was carried out in two stages: the New Testament was printed in 1911, the Old Testament in 1922.

The book of Acts testifies that preaching is not a human thing, but God's

We should also mention the books of the New Testament themselves. So, the first book is the Gospel of Matthew. The apostle Matthew was the son of Alpheus, a native of Capernaum, before his calling as Lord, he was a publican [8]. His Gospel, according to the assumption of the church historian Eusebius, refers to the 8 year of the Ascension of the Lord. St. Irenaeus of Lyons believes that it was written in the 60-ies of the first century [9]. Bl. Theophylact narrates that the Gospel was written in Hebrew, later translated by John into the Greek language [10].

The Gospel of Mark was written about 10 years after the Ascension of the Lord. The apostle Mark wrote the Gospel in Rome from the words of the apostle Peter. The evangelist himself witnessed the last days of the Savior's earthly life. He participated in the first missionary journey of the apostle Paul and his companion Barnabas (Acts 13). Apostle Peter Mark was placed bishop in Egypt, where in Alexandria he ended his life with martyrdom [11]. Evangelist Mark wrote the gospel of Christ in Greek.

The Apostle Luke was a doctor and wrote the Holy Gospel and the Acts of the Holy Apostles, 15 years after the Ascension in Rome [12]. The original language of the message is also Greek.

His second work is the Book of Acts. Here the period from the crucifixion of Christ in 33 AD is revealed. before the appearance in Rome of the Apostle Paul in 61-62. This historical book testifies that preaching is not a human thing, but God's. It is the true proof of the truth of the Resurrection of Christ, whose miracle was subsequently witnessed by the apostles through preaching and miracles. The two books mentioned were written by the Apostle Luke for Theophilus (Luke 1: 3; Acts 1: 1) [13].

The apostle John, the son of Zebedee and the brother of Jacob, wrote the holy Gospel later 32 year after the Ascension of the Lord, against the Gnostic Kerinf and other heretics. He also wrote three conciliar messages in Ephesus, and before all his other writings, during the exile to the core of Patmos in the Aegean Sea, Revelation (Apocalypse) [14].

Under the conciliar messages are understood seven letters written by holy apostles. The Epistle of the Apostle James the Alpha, the first Jerusalem bishop, is addressed to the Jews in the dispersion. The reason for his writing was that the Jewish Jews living in the diaspora suffered numerous tribulations. Because of the severity of the tests, they began to lose courage and hesitate in believing in the Savior. The time and place of writing the message are not indicated. However, the fact that the apostle died about 64 year, gives the opportunity for most interpreters to believe that the message is written in 55-60-ies. The place of writing was probably Jerusalem or Palestine in general, since there is no information that the apostle James ever left Palestine. Doubts about the authenticity of this message, no teacher and father of the Church did not express [15].

The Apostle John resorted to the images borrowed from the Old Testament prophecies in the Apocalypse, showing the continuity of the Old Testament and New Testament revelation

The Apostle Peter, who was formerly Simon (Matthew 16: 17-18), was the brother of the Apostle Andrew the First-Called. He was the first to confess the Lord as the Messiah, and he washed his renunciation of the Lord throughout his remaining life with great tears, and the Lord restored him to the list of twelve apostles (John 21: 15-17). In 67, in Rome, the apostle Peter, crucified on the cross upside down (according to tradition) took martyrdom with the apostle Paul. His first message, the Apostle Peter addresses the aliens scattered in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia. The purpose of writing this message was to confirm their brothers in faith, encouragement and consolation of the sorrow of the Asia Minor Christians. It is believed that this message was written by an apostle in Babylon between 62 and 64 year. The second message was written by him in Rome from 65 to 66 year, in it the apostle tried to warn believers from false teachings and their teachers [16].

As mentioned above, in addition to the Gospel and Revelation in Ephesus, at the end of the first century the Apostle John also wrote three more epistles. The first message develops the theme of establishing the faith in Jesus Christ as the Son of God and contains the promise that believers in Him will have eternal life [17]. The second message is addressed to a certain "chosen lady and her children" (2 IN. 1: 1), in it the apostle expresses joy for the children of the mistress, who walk in the truth and persistently exhorts them not to communicate with false teachers. The third message of the Evangelist John is addressed to Gaius. The main theme of the message is the praise of Gaius for virtuous life, hospitality, firmness in faith and walking in truth [18].

The special content and style distinguish the Apocalypse from other John's messages. By means of visions, John saw the forthcoming birth of the Antichrist on the Earth, the second coming of Jesus Christ, the end of the world, the Last Judgment. Revelation sums up all that was said about it in the Bible. It shows the future destiny of the Church and the whole world. The apostle John resorts to it in images borrowed from Old Testament prophecies, showing the continuity of the Old Testament and New Testament revelation.

Another message belongs to the pen of the apostle Judah, the brother of Jacob, as he himself calls himself. According to some reports, he suffered martyrdom in Edessa, according to others, in Beirut, thirdly, in Armenia, being hung on a tree and pierced by arrows. The message was written between 67 and 70 year. There is no mention of the place of writing the epistle of the apostle Judas. The reason for writing it was pastoral jealousy about saving souls and protecting believers from false teachings [19], also the apostle calls his addressees to the purity of faith.

THE WORKS OF APOSTOL PAUL AND THEIR APPOINTMENT

The Apostle Paul was called by the Lord after His Ascension. The future apostle came from the city of Tarsus and originally bore the name Saul. Most of the book of Acts is the description of his preaching. According to legend, Paul suffered martyrdom in Rome in 67, along with the apostle Peter, he, as a Roman citizen, was beheaded.

The writings of the apostle Paul constitute the greater part of the writings of the New Testament: the canon includes fourteen of his letters. These messages are placed in the Bible in the following order: to the Romans, two to the Corinthians, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to the Philippians, to the Colossians, two to the Thessalonians, two to Timothy, to Titus, to Philemon and to the Hebrews.

The presented order is not chronological. This placement is made on the importance and breadth of the messages themselves and on the comparative significance of the churches and individuals to whom the messages are addressed. The messages to the seven churches are followed by messages to three persons, and the message to the Hebrews is put behind all, because its authenticity was recognized later. The Epistles of the Holy Apostle Paul are usually divided into two unequal groups: 1) messages of universal Christianity and 2) messages of the pastoral. To these latter are two epistles to Timothy and a message to Titus, because they indicate the foundations and rules of good shepherding [20].

The Epistles of the Holy Apostle Paul are of great importance, since they contain a profound revelation and explanation of the truths of the Gospel teaching. Most of the messages are built according to one plan. They begin with a greeting to the readers and thanks to God for His harvesting about the place where the message is directed. Then the message is usually divided into two parts - dogmatic and moral. In conclusion, the holy Apostle usually deals with private matters, makes assignments, talks about his personal situation, expresses his good wishes and sends greetings to peace and love.

The special importance of the themes set forth by the apostle Paul in the epistle to the Romans caused the frequent citation of it already in the first centuries of Christianity

The Epistle to the Romans, the first Pauline message, as it appears on the list of New Testament books, was written by the apostle Paul in 57, at the end of the third missionary journey, when the holy Apostle Paul was in Corinth. This testifies that this message was written after the wide educational activity of the Apostle Paul: "By the power of signs and miracles, by the power of the Spirit of God, so that the gospel of Christ is spread by me from Jerusalem and the neighborhood to Illyricum" (Rom. 15: 19). As for the question of the purpose of writing, here it is necessary to identify two opinions accepted by biblical scholars: 1) the Apostle Paul prepared his Romans to read the Gospel, which he preaches; 2) "The Epistle to the Romans is a kind of apostle of the apostle Paul in the face of the Judeo Christians, for which he emphasizes the superiority of the Jew over the pagan, the importance of the Law in the saving plan of God's economy and the temporary character of the rejection of Christ by the people of Israel" [21]. The special importance of the themes set forth by the apostle Paul in the epistle to the Romans, caused frequent citation of it already in the first centuries of Christianity. Thus, references and quotations from the epistle are found in the works of the Holy Bible. Clement of Rome (95), Justin the Philosopher (140), Polycarp of Smyrna (150), as well as Tertullian (200) and Origen (250). The authenticity of the message was testified by svt. Irenaeus of Lyons (170), Clement of Alexandria (200), bishop of Caesarea Eusebius (315). Indication of the message to the Romans is in the famous canon Muratori (170). The truth and canonicity of the message was confirmed by the church councils: the Third Local Council in Carthage (397) and the "Great" local cathedral of the North African Church in Hippon in 419 [22].

Reconstruction of the possible appearance of the Apostle Paul

Archbishop Mefodiy (Smirnov), beginning the translation of this message, precedes his work with a brief commentary "On the main properties and dignity of the Romans of the Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle" (here and below the quotation of the work of Archbishop Methodius is given in modern orthography). In it, referring to the "Judean Antiquities" of Josephus, speaks about the peculiarities of the language of this message and its content. So, he notes that since "Romans, and even the inhabitants of the capital of ancient Rome, there were such people, who in cunning minds reached the highest degree to the highest degree: then, therefore, the Apostle, applying his word to the property of this people and the Jews, who cohabited him, wrote this message of cunning and diverse wisdom with a fulfilled syllable; and put in it all the main tenets of faith and morality edifying. Therefore, the Church teachers also read this message with the reduction of all Christian theology "[23].

In this indication of the main features of the epistle of the apostle Paul to the Romans, one can see the reflection of the words of the apostle himself, who, referring to the Christians of Corinth, indicates that he is guided by his apostolic ministry: For, being free from all, I enslave everyone to all more to gain: for the Jews I was like a Jew, to acquire Jews; for subordinates was as subordinate to acquire by-laws; for those who are alien to the law - as a stranger to the law, - not being a stranger to the law before God, but under the law of Christ, - to acquire those who are alien to the law; for the infirm was like the weak, to gain the weak. For all, I became everything to save at least some. I also do this for the Gospel, to be an accomplice to it (1 Corinth 9: 19-23).

Also Archbishop Mefody considers it necessary to mention the general content of the Epistle to the Romans. He also notes: "The Apostle Paul in this, 1) certifies and explains that all Jews and Gentiles are subject to the sin and wrath of God and that all of us will be justified by one and the same faith, without any reason to hope for any advantage or on their merits before God, as much as despise their congregation for Christ; - and, the Apostle, having equated both the Jews and the Greeks, in the gracious gift of faith and justification, elevates their thoughts to the first beginning of our salvation, to the destinies of the inscrutable will of God: - and 2) instructs believers, according to the doctrine of faith, to the restrained, peace-loving and pious life; that the Apostle had the main purpose of the entire message "[24].

The first Epistle to the Corinthians was written in view of the disputes in the Corinthian Church about church life, based not on the principles of faith in Christ, but on the considerations of the wandering mind of some Corinthian teachers

Another epistle of the apostle Paul - the first to the Corinthians - was written in view of the disputes that have arisen in the Corinthian Church about church life, based not on the principles of faith in Christ, but on the considerations of the wandering mind of some Corinthian teachers. These disputes led to the fact that some called themselves followers of Peter, others - Paul, others - Apollos, etc. And lest a split occur, the apostle wrote his epistle to the Corinthians of Ephesus [25].

The second epistle addressed to the Corinthians again concerned the piety of the members of this early Christian community. On the one hand, it became known that, having received the first message of the apostle, many Corinthians abandoned their sins and turned to repentance, but there were those who did not want to be corrected (2 Corinth 12: 21). In order to again call the apostates to repent, and this message was written, so that, as the apostle Paul himself points out, in the presence of not using strictness in the power given to me by the Lord for creation, and not to ruin (2 Corinth 13: 10).

The reason for the writing of the Epistle to the Galatian Christian churches by the apostle Paul was the beginning of the decline of the local Christians by some Judaizing false teachers to the compulsory execution of the ritual rules of the Law of Moses. Heretics, after slandering the apostle Paul, were turned away from many by his preaching, this circumstance caused the apostle himself (Gal. 6: 11) to write a conviction of levity and recklessness of the Galatians (Gal. 3: 1).

The epistle to the Ephesians was written in bonds: for this reason I, Paul, became a prisoner of Jesus Christ for you Gentiles (Eph. 3: 1). When analyzing the text it is clear that there was no special reason for writing it. Drawing attention to the inspired and sublime tone of the message, we can conclude that the apostle Paul wanted to share with the Ephesians those high contemplations in which he was introduced by the Spirit of God in prison. Another point of view suggests that the speech in this message is about the consolation of the sorrowful in the misfortunes that befell the spiritual father and teacher of the Ephesians. Compare: therefore, I ask you not to lose heart in my grief for you, which is your glory (Eph. 3: 13). Also, perhaps, the reason for writing was the desire to warn Ephesians from Judaizers and other false teachers.

The Epistle to the Philippians is imbued with love and gratitude to the addressees. This is due to a personal kind attitude towards the Philippians, who at one time made efforts to help the apostle Paul, when he was captured by the Jews in Jerusalem, imprisoned, then demanded the court of Caesar and then he was sent to Rome. This is evidenced by the apostle himself: I was very glad in the Lord that you already began to take care of me again; you have been cared for before, but circumstances were not favorable to you (Phil. 4: 10). And when the apostle Paul arrived in Rome, the Philippians gave him abundant financial assistance and sent him Epaphroditus, whom the holy apostle Paul calls his brother, collaborator and companion. Compare: and I considered it necessary to send Epaphroditus, brother and co-worker, and my companion, and your messenger and minister in my need (Phil. 2: 25).

"In this letter, there is no usual division for the Pauline epistles into a dogmatic and moralizing part: the message is private, not official. It resembles a paternally friendly letter, and is filled with expressions of meek and tender feelings that have been established between the holy Apostle and the Philippians. We do not see in this message either the severity of the exposures, or insistent orders, nor the powerful apostolic orders. Especially typical of this message is the lack of an accusatory element in it "[26].

The reason for the writing of the Apostle Paul to the Colossians was the appearance in this area of ​​false teachers who threatened the purity of faith. From them, the apostle warns his addressees. At the same time, it is very remarkable that the message to the Colossians testifies to the establishment in these times of the practice of preserving the letters of the apostles, who were considered to be the teaching books of the entire Christian world. Obviously, through repeated correspondence, these letters were distributed throughout the empire, where Christian churches existed. About this practice, the apostle Paul mentions: "When this message is read from you, then order that it be read in the Laodicean church; but the one that is from Laodicea, read also you "(Col. 4: 16). Thus, the practice of sending and preserving the apostolic letters firmly established itself in the tradition of the Church of Christ in the second half of the first century AD [27]

Through repeated correspondence, the letters of the apostles were distributed throughout the empire, where there were Christian churches

Epistle to the Thessalonians, the Apostle Paul writes in order to express to them his joy in faith, to offer healing against the moral ills that Timothy observed, and to reassure the believers in the matter of the dead. The apostle also narrates to them the doctrine of the second coming of Jesus Christ. The last remark served as an occasion for writing the second Epistle to the Thessalonians. In its way, the second epistle is a complement to the first, aimed at ensuring that those who follow Christ do not make the wrong conclusions from the first message sent to them.

His pastoral message to Philemon, the Apostle Paul, as Archbishop Averky (Taushev) says, wrote about his offending slave Onesimus. So, the apostle convinces Philemon: I ask you about my Onesimus, whom I gave birth in my bonds: he was once unkind to you, but now is fit for you and for me; I return it (Phil .1: 10-11); And again: If he offended you, or should, consider it on me (Phil. 1: 18). Out of fear of punishment, Onisim fled from his master and made his way to Rome, where the apostle Paul was in prison. Since, during his first ties in Rome, the apostle had the opportunity to preach unbroken (cf. Acts 28: 31), he among others turned to faith in Christ and Onesimus. The apostle so fell in love with Onesimus, that he even wanted to keep him with him, but then he thought it best to bring him back to Philemon, asking that the latter should accept him: you must accept him as my heart (Phil 1: 12). All this message is directed to completely reconcile the master with his slave, so that Philemon accepted Onesimus, who had fled once, no longer as a slave, but as a beloved brother (Phil. 1: 16) [28].

The Epistle to the Hebrews was addressed to the Jews of Jerusalem and the Palestinians, who began to distance themselves from the faith of Christ, from communicating with the followers of the Lord (compare Hebrews 10: 25: We will not leave our congregation, as some have a custom, but we will exhort one another, and the more, the more you see the approach of the day) and gravitate towards Judaism.

This message was the last of the Pavlovians to enter the New Testament canon of Holy Scripture, which is due to certain doubts (first of all, in the Western Christian Church [29]) in his belonging to the apostle Paul due to a number of his differences from other writings of the holy Apostle. First of all, it is indicated here that the message was not signed by the name of Paul, as he did in his usual manner in all other messages. However, as answered by the doubt, the holy fathers and interpreters, including St. Theophan the Recluse: "Let no one be indicated who wrote this message; but whoever proceeded to read it, as soon as he had not accepted anything before the origin of his prejudice, this question can not remain unsolved for a long time. He will not have time to read the first two or three chapters, as he will have to realize: this was written by Saint Paul. The further it will be in reading, the more this thought will be established and strengthened in it, and finally, it will turn into a full conviction when it reaches the afterword. Here, that no word, then an indication of St. Paul "[30].

There is a possibility that this message was originally written in Hebrew. However, no documentary evidence has been found about the original Hebrew for this message and the Gospel of Matthew. All the books of the New Testament came to us in Greek, and later, at different times, translations of New Testament writings into other languages ​​began to appear.

It is noteworthy that the Holy Fathers and interpreters, referring to the writings of the holy Apostle Paul, point both to their substantive features, and to the specific rhetorical and stylistic devices he applied, some noteworthy language tools.

All the books of the New Testament reached us in Greek, and later, at different times, translations of New Testament writings into other languages ​​began to appear

An important feature of the Pauline epistles is also that in order to confirm his teaching he refers to the authority of exactly the words of the Lord, and not to the words of the prophets of the Old Testament: "For from the Lord I received what I handed you" (1 Corinth 11: 23 ); "So the Lord commanded those who preach the gospel to live from the gospel" (1 Corinth 9: 14; LX 10: 7). The Apostle Paul in the book of Acts, in a farewell address to the elders from Ephesus, says: "In all things I have shown you that by working so hard we must support the weak and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, for He Himself said:" It is more blessed to give than to receive "(Acts 20: 35). The fact is that the words of the Savior, quoted by the Apostle, are not in the text of the canonical Gospels. Apparently, these words were taken by St. Paul from the living Tradition, which was kept in the Church [31].

THE STRUCTURE OF THE GOD'S RELIGION IN MESSAGES TO ROMANS AND JEWS

The theology of the Apostle Paul in the epistles to the Romans and Hebrews has a similarity, which once again confirms the authorship of the last epistle.

1. Greeting - (Rome 1: 1-8); (Rome 16); (Hebrew 13: 18-25)

2. On the Old Testament Law and the Need for Its Execution - (Rome 2: 12-29); (Heb., 11)

3. About Moses: the Romans talk about the Mosaic law and the need for its fulfillment, and for the Jews - about the greatness of Christ in comparison with Moses - (2: 12-29) (Heb. 3: 1-7)

4. An example of the faith of Abraham - (Rome 4); (Hebrew 6: 9-20)

5. Instruction to the Roman and Jewish communities - (Rome 12; 15: 1-14); (Hebrew 13: 1-17)

One of the reasons for writing the messages in question was, undoubtedly, the anxiety of the apostle Paul about the life of one and the other community. The general and similar content fragments of both messages relate to those that relate to the comprehension of the events and teachings of the Old Testament. For the Romans, this is an example of a God-chosen people, and for Jews it is an image from a past life.


[1] Sobchenko V., prot. The way of the New Testament text formation [Electronic resource] // URL: http://www.orthodoxy.lt/en/bogoslovie/198-put-stanovleniya-novozavetnogo-teksta#g1 (date of circulation: 08.03.2014).

[2] McDowell D. Indisputable evidence [Electronic resource] // URL: http://www.christianinfo.net.ua/materials/Neosporimye-svidetelstva-Dzh.-Makdauell.htm#7 (date of circulation: 08.03.2014).

[3] See: Metzger Bruce M. Canon of the New Testament. Preparatory period: apostolic men [Electronic resource] // URL: http://apologia.narod.ru/bible/metcger/metcger_4.htm (date of circulation: 08.03.2014).

[4] John Chrysostom, sv. Interpretation of St. Matthew the Evangelist. The first book. - M., 1993. - S. 5-6.

[5] Sobchenko V., prot. The way of the New Testament text formation [Electronic resource] // URL: http://www.orthodoxy.lt/en/bogoslovie/198-put-stanovleniya-novozavetnogo-teksta#g1 (date of circulation: 08.03.2014).

[6] Metzger Bruce M. Canon of the New Testament. Preparatory period: apostolic men [Electronic resource] // URL: http://apologia.narod.ru/bible/metcger/metcger_4.htm (date of circulation: 08.03.2014).

[7] Metzger Bruce M. New Testament Text [Electronic resource] // URL: http://khazarzar.skeptik.net/books/metzger1.htm (date of circulation: 08.03.2014).

[8] Theophylact of Bulgaria, bl. Interpretation of the Holy Gospel. T.1. Interpretation of the Gospel according to Matthew and Mark. - M., 2013. - S. 340-341.

[9] Averkin (Taushev), Archbishop. The Four Gospels. Apostle. A guide to the study of the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament. - M., 2004. - S. 25.

[10] Theophylact of Bulgaria, bl. Interpretation of the Holy Gospel. T. 1. Interpretation of the Gospel according to Matthew and Mark. - M., 2013. - S. 27.

[11] Ibid. S. 353-354.

[12] Ibid. T. 2. Interpretation of the Gospel of Luke and John. - M., 2013. - S. 5-6.

[13] Averkin (Taushev), Archbishop. The Four Gospels. Apostle. A guide to the study of the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament. - M., 2004. - S. 373-374.

[14] Theophylact of Bulgaria, bl. Interpretation of the Holy Gospel. T. 2. Interpretation of the Gospel of Luke and John. - M., 2013. - S. 449-450.

[15] Averkin (Taushev), Archbishop. The Four Gospels. Apostle. A guide to the study of the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament. - M., 2004. - S. 512-514.

[16] Ibid. S. 520-523; S. 531-532.

[17] Averkin (Taushev), Archbishop. The Four Gospels. Apostle. A guide to the study of the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament. - M., 2004. - S. 537-540.

[18] Ibid. S. 548-551.

[19] Ibid. S. 552-554.

[20] Averkin (Taushev), Archbishop. The Four Gospels. Apostle. A guide to the study of the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament. - M., 2004. - S. 556-557.

[21] Karavidopulous I. Introduction to the New Testament [Electronic resource] // URL: http://azbyka.ru/hristianstvo/bibliya/novyi_zavet/vvedenie-v-novyj-zavet-all.shtml#20.3. (date of circulation: 08.03.2014).

[22] See: Tenni Merrill S. Review of the New Testament. - M., 2004. - S. 492.

[23] Methodius (Smirnov), Arch. To the Romans the message of St. Paul the Apostle, with an interpretation supported by the sayings of the holy father, and other important writers. - M., 1815. -FROM. 1.

[24] Methodius (Smirnov), Arch. To the Romans the message of St. Paul the Apostle, with an interpretation supported by the sayings of the holy father, and other important writers. - M., 1815. - S. 2.

[25] Sobchenko V., prot. The way of the New Testament text formation [Electronic resource] // URL: http://www.orthodoxy.lt/en/bogoslovie/198-put-stanovleniya-novozavetnogo-teksta (date of circulation: 08.03.2014).

[26] Averky (Taushev), Archbishop. The Four Gospels. Apostle. A guide to the study of the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament. - M., 2004. - S. 645.

[27] Sobchenko V., prot. The way of the New Testament text formation [Electronic resource] // URL: http://www.orthodoxy.lt/en/bogoslovie/198-put-stanovleniya-novozavetnogo-teksta (date of circulation: 08.03.2014).

[28] Averky (Taushev), Archbishop. The Four Gospels. Apostle. A guide to the study of the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament. - M., 2004. - S. 725.

[29] See more about this: Averky (Taushev), Arch. The Four Gospels. Apostle. A guide to the study of the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament. - M., 2004. - S. 725.

[30] Theophanes the Recluse, sv. The Epistle of the Holy Apostle Paul to the Hebrews, interpreted by Saint Theophan [Electronic resource] // URL: https://azbyka.ru/otechnik/Feofan_Zatvornik/tolkovanie-na-poslanie-k-evrejam/ (date of circulation: 28.04.2017).

[31] Sobchenko V., prot. The way of the New Testament text formation [Electronic resource] // URL: http://www.orthodoxy.lt/en/bogoslovie/198-put-stanovleniya-novozavetnogo-teksta (date of circulation: 08.03.2014).

Priest Sergey Trushchelev
Sretensky Theological Seminary
GTranslate Your license is inactive or expired, please subscribe again!