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On the canvas, why women's collections so close to art

While experts debate whether art fashion designers say about their preferences: on the agenda of the history of modernism from impressionism to minimalism.

Impressionism

One of the most beloved directions in the world of painting, whose artists laid out complex tones on the pure colors of the spectrum, as in a refracted solar ray, and did not use black paint, there are no equal in the history of art in the charge of vitality and optimism. It is enough to look at the sun-drenched pictures of Auguste Renoir, nature and people who are imbued with happiness and peace. His heroines in the light fluttering dresses echo the images of the American duet Marchesa, in whose graceful dresses the sorbet could well have been strolled after lunch in the Renoir Tuileries garden. At Chanel, the fragile silhouettes of models in small hats were reminiscent of female characters from the paintings of the founder of Impressionism, Eduard Manet (although he refused to participate in exhibitions), in particular, the famous "Bar in the Folies-Berger", which is not surprising, as Karl Lagerfeld is a well-known connoisseur of the artist's work. His latest joint collection prêt-à-porter for Valentino Maria Grazia Curie and Pierpaolo Piccoli dedicated to the art of ballet, especially the "Russian Seasons" Diaghilev and the choreography of Martha Graham. Therefore, their models in translucent, sometimes closed body tulle dresses and white broad skirts with flounces, are similar to the small dancers of Edgar Degas, who were sealed in rehearsal tutus at ballet machines.

Auguste Renoir. "Swing», 1876
Edgar Degas. "Blue Dancers», 1897
Chanel / Marchesa / Oscar de le Renta / Valentino

Orientalism

The World Exhibition in Paris 1867 year opened to the sophisticated European public China and Japan. In the pavilions of both countries was not pushed through: Paris was conquered by their porcelain, fabrics, lacquered wood furniture, ladies' trinkets and accessories. Until 1930-ies, along with interior items in Europe and imported silk kimonos embroidered, which are often converted into fashionable dresses or homemade robes, fans, jewelry for hairstyles and other exotics. Few artists resisted the magical beauty of the East, which turned out to be so elegant, thin, almost ephemeral. Great Van Gogh copied Japanese prints, and in landscapes imitated the manner of artists who worked in the technique of Sumi-E ink and mineral paints. One of such original sheets with Japanese botanical drawings of the XVIII century, caught in Lagerfeld's eyes, suggested the idea of ​​jacquard fabrics for the new Fendi collection. Vegetative motifs from Chinese painted vases decorated with Rococo interiors appeared in the form of embroidery on the evening dresses of Alberta Ferretti. The purple brocade coat, more like a Chinese robe, generously embroidered with a golden thread, is a good example of how the West meets the East in the elegant and practical ensemble Ralph Lauren. For 73-year-old Ray Kawakubo, all this gives up to her hating conformism. Her response was a collection for Comme Des Garcons called "Punk of the XVIII Century" - a phantasmagoric combination of corsets and crocheted silk from the times of Louis XVI and a samurai armor that gathered from two dozen elements.

Vincent Van Gogh. "Blossoming Almond», 1890
William Merritt Chase. "Peonies», 1897
Anna Sui / Fendi / Alberta Ferretti / Comme des Garçons

Expressionism

No fashionable season can do without a drama - and thank God, otherwise hundreds of shows would turn into one long dull action. And to become a witness of costume drama is the limit of dreams. Let the professionals disassemble, how much the presented clothes are modern, or her place in theatrical costumes. We are ready at least for a short 15 minutes to immerse ourselves in a fantastic world in which the most unexpected characters come to life. As a prototype for his catwalks heroine designer Dris Van Noten chose the eccentric Marquise Louise Kazati, the patroness and the muse of the Parisian bohemia of the beginning of the century. Van Nöthen's style is far from historical accuracy. He resorts to the same artistic techniques as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, a contemporary of Kazati and the founder of German expressionism: an exquisite, but muffled palette, slightly grotesque lines of silhouette, cinematically emphasized eyes. The same methods are used by Marc Jacobs, whose attire a la belle époque dramatically grows in volume due to the multilayeredness and large bellows.

Creative method younger contemporary and associate of Kirchner - Otto Dix - differ in the direction of much more violent, to the physiological details of the world of the image. Even in this genre as a portrait of his most famous article "Portrait of the journalist Sylvia von Harden" produces almost uncomfortable impression. It seems that in a show called Dior models output in black tightly buttoned deuce and sunglasses DiorUmbrage coated with mirrored glass fine pattern.

Ernst Ludwig Kihner. "Five women in the street», 1913
Otto Dix. "Portrait of the journalist Sylvia von Harden», 1926
Marc Jacobs / Kenzo / Dries Van Noten / Roberto Cavalli

Op art

This direction, which arose in 1950-x thanks to the endless experiments of the artist Victor Vasarely, became, perhaps, the first of its kind so literally borrowed fashion. Op-art uses various visual illusions, based on the features of the perception of flat and spatial figures. All elements of the composition are constructed on a thin calculation, extremely rational, referring not to the aesthetic side of perception, but to the mind of man. In the 1960 with their youth boom, space flights and new music, op-art was most in tune with new insane experiments, primarily in fashion and design. Even the simplest illusionary compositions - like those composed of two-color stripes creating an illusion of volume on the plane of the canvas - are even more interestingly revealed in a three-dimensional volume as a figure of a fabric. The horizontal wavy bands in Fendi and broken, as if refracted, - Victoria Beckham look modern, with each movement complicating the game of volumes and vibration of color. And with Haider Ackerman, the lines echo the bending of the body, drawing the figure visually. Perhaps, it is only from some "kinetic sculptures" of Issey Miyake, where in the movement the complicated graphics of the bands are intertwined with the springiness of finely pleated fabric, even the head may begin to spin, as once those who first saw Vasarely's works.

Victor Vasarely. "Zebra», 1950
Bar Zebar, Shanghai, architectural studio 3GATTI, 2010
Sportmax / Issey Miyake / Victoria Beckham / Fendi

Minimalism

This trend is so organically entered in our lives, in the first place, not even in fashion and architecture that we can not speak of it as a momentary trend.

Proenza Schouler, for example, called the name of the artist Frank Stella - a new collection of designer inspired him to post-painterly abstraction (whatever that means). In it, each with its ensemble textures, volume and multi-layer has been designed like a modern sculpture. The show was held in the new building of the Whitney Museum of American Art, designed by Renzo Piano genius of modernism, and it has become worthy of some sort of exhibition space for unusual exposure.

The architecture of the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, where the Loewe show was held, resonated with a collection in which the main emphasis was placed on the textures of fabrics and details. Phoebe Philo, the designer of Céline and the main champion of minimalism, followed by Joseph, having reduced the entire palette to just a few muted colors, bet on the game with volumes and the contrast of textures. On closer examination these seemingly tough and clumsy things turn out to be made of high-quality leather, cashmere and wool. Despite the apparent simplicity, minimalism requires a little more attention to be appreciated.

Robert Morris. Untitled, 1965
The work of Donald Judd in the Fund Cheenath (The Chinati Foundation) in the town of Marfa, Texas
Joseph / Céline / Loewe / Jil Sander

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